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WorldTaiChiDay.org is one of the world's leading sources for Medical Research
on Tai Chi and Qigong, and how it benefits a host of maladies and health issues.


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Nearly 100 common health issues will drop down,
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Also, be sure to view the amazing testimonials video in the column to your right, a moving video of how Tai Chi has profoundly changed people's lives.

Forward this page to every PHYSICIAN you know!

Recent research showed that Tai Chi was a more effective Stroke Rehabilitation therapy than the U.S. Medicare covered SilverSneakers Program. It is increasingly apparent that U.S. Medicare and private insurers should cover Tai Chi and Qigong, to reduce our nation's health costs.

Our Tai Chi Medical Research Library enabled Australian Tai Chi teacher, Rod Ferguson, to create a proposal that resulted in his Australian State government's funding of a senior services program for Tai Chi for seniors as a way to lower their nation's future health costs.


Harvard Medical School Released Historic Tai Chi Medical Research Lecture Commemorating World Tai Chi Day!

VIDEO: Qigong Breathing Tutorial


You will also find short videos explaining aspects of Tai Chi, Qigong, and Chinese Energy Medicine, and a video tutorial on "Qigong Breathing." (above)

Visit our "FREE Online Lesson" section for online Tai Chi or Qigong lessons. Visit our "Find Local Classes" sections to find contact information posted by Tai Chi and Qigong teachers in your local area.






click for video - how tai chi and qigong help prevent illness 

     Click Tai Chi figure for video on "
       
How Tai Chi & Qigong Help
           Heal & Prevent Illness"




Tai Chi... might well be called medication in motion ... [because of] growing evidence Tai Chi has value in treating or preventing many health problems.
-- Harvard Medical Health Publication


Testimonials: Tai Chi Changes Lives!



The new Harvard Medical School Guide to Tai Chi is a powerful reference book for all tai chi and qigong advocates, teachers, etc., and the Harvard Medical School guide cites WorldTaiChiDay.org's expansion of global awareness of tai chi and qigong!



For thousands of years people around the world have developed alternative therapies to treat the body, mind, and the soul ... this is the area of energy medicine.
-- Dr. Oz (the Dr. Oz Show)



"By linking my site to World Tai Chi & Qigong Day's comprehensive and easy to use listing of health research, I help prospective students with health concerns learn that Tai Chi will be both safe and beneficial for them. Rather than reinventing the wheel, I just link to this health benefits page on World Tai Chi Day's website, and provide this service without all the work."

Thank you.

Master Teacher Vincent J. Lasorso, Jr.
White Willow School of Tai Chi
Cincinnati, Ohio
www.whitewillowtaichi.com

* NOTE: World Tai Chi & Qigong Day advises that consulting your physician before beginning any new exercise, herbal, diet, or health program is advisable. The research listed here is meant to help stimulate a discussion between you and your physician, your health insurance carrier, etc., not as medical advise.

Medical research and comments provided here are hoped to stimulate a more robust discussion of powerful natural mind/body health tools. In popular media, health media, and government a disturbing lack of attention to stunning emerging research has occured, including the UCLA study indicating Tai Chi participants enjoyed a 50% increase in immune system resistance to viral infection."


VIDEO: The Basis of Chinese Energy Medicine Including Tai Chi and Qigong

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ALSO, for medical researchers, or those interested in discussions on medical research on Tai Chi & Qigong, join this list: qigonginstitute e-group

A moderated mailing list for students, practitioners, and researchers to exchange information and post announcements. (Only for serious discussion of research).
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Dr. Oz wholeheartedly endorses energy medicine

See the below video on his advocacy of Reiki. Reiki
is a highly effective derivation of External Qigong,
where the practitioner allows Ki (Qi in Chinese) to flow
through their hands into the receiving patient or client.

If you would like to experience your own flow of
Ki, or Qi (life energy), view the video below Dr. Oz's clip,
where WTCQD's Founder will lead you through a Qigong
meditation that will enable you to "feel your Qi".

Click to enjoy a Sitting Qigong Meditation w/ WTCQD Founder



Click above to enjoy a Qigong Meditation with the
Founder of World Tai Chi & Qigong Day, and get
introduced to the sensation of "feeling your Qi."









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out of 153,000 listed websites?

Or that we are #2 out of 74,900 websites on "Qigong Medical Research"?

Or that all of WorldTaiChiDay.org's pages have referred over ONE-MILLION our visitors to our "Find Local Classes" directory where teachers and schools worldwide can list for free?

www.WorldTaiChiDay.org . . . the prescription for the future.
























































Medical Research Library - from World Tai Chi & Qigong Day

Search nearly 100 common health issues, from Aches to Weight Loss, for articles on medical research & how Tai Chi or Qigong can help.


A   -   B   -    C    -   D/E   -    F/G    -    H/I/J/K   -    L/M     -    N/O/P    -    R/S/T/V/W -        BONUS RESOURCES






A

B

C

D/E

F/G

H/I/J/K

L/M

N/O/P

R/S/T/V/W

BONUS


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THE BELOW MATERIAL IS ARCHIVES,

FOR THE LATEST UPDATED VERSIONS
OF THE BELOW TOPICS, CLICK HERE ...






















































































ACHES, BREATHING, BLOODPRESSURE:

...participants observed a "big increase in breathing capacity", a disappearance of backaches and neckaches, those with high blood pressure claimed a drop of 10 to 15 mm Hg systolic at rest, and all participants claimed to have more energy in their daily work. Hawaii Medical Journal - Vol 51 No. 8 August 92

BALANCE: A ten year study on aging through Harvard, Yale and Emory University determined not only that T'ai Chi was superior to more technological balance therapies, but that T'ai Chi reduced the risk of injury by falling by 48%. Complications from these injuries are the sixth leading cause of death in older Americans, and account for about $10 billion loss per year to the economy.
USA Today, May 1996

*

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ADD and ADHD. Research at the University of Miami School of Medicine has shown that adolescents with ADHD (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder) displayed less anxiety, daydreaming behaviors, inappropriate emotions and hyperactivity, and greater improved conduct, after a five week, two day per week class. Tai Chi meets many of the criteria for mood management techniques recommended for ADD (see the “Treating Attention Deficit Disorder [ADD]” section earlier in this chapter).

[Hernandez-Reif, M., Field, T.M., & Thimas, E. (2001). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: benefits from Tai Chi. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies, 5(2):120-3, 2001 Apr, 5(23 ref), 120-123.]

Treating Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

ADD is a growing problem not only with children, but adults as well. Tai Chi may is a wonderful adjunct therapy for treating ADD because it augments many of the mood management techniques recommended for ADD sufferers. A University of Miami School of Medicine study shows Tai Chi is a powerful therapy for ADHD (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder). The children participating in the study saw a drop in ADD symptoms, and an enhanced ability to focus, concentrate, and perform tasks.

Ouch!

Check with your child’s therapist or physician before beginning Tai Chi. Also, find an effective, understanding
Tai Chi instructor who has experience teaching children.

Drs. Edward M. Hallowell, M.D., and John J. Ratey, M.D., experts on the management of ADD wrote, “Exercise is positively one of the best treatments for ADD. It helps work off excess energy and aggression in a positive way, it allows for noise-reduction within the mind, it stimulates the hormonal and neurochemical systems in a most therapeutic way, and it soothes and calms the body.”

The slow mindful movements of Tai Chi have much to offer people who suffer from ADD. The following table explains why T'ai Chi may be a perfect ADD therapy.

T'ai Chi and ADD

What Experts Suggest
What T'ai Chi Offers
Set aside time for recharging batteries,
something calm and restful, like meditation.
Tai Chi is a mini-vacation.
Daily exercise that is readily available and
needs little preparation can help with the
blahs that occur and with overall outlook.
Tai Chi is easy, requires no preparation,
and is a daily mood elevator.
Observe mood swings; learn to accept
them by realizing they will pass. Learn
strategies that might help bad moods
pass sooner.
Tai Chi is a tool for self-observation of
feelings and for letting those feelings go.
Use “time-outs” when you are upset or overstimulated; take
a time-out; go away, calm down.
T'ai Chi can be performed in the bathroom
at school or work, giving you a break from
the stress.
Let go of the urgency to always finish things quickly by learning to enjoy the process. Tai Chi's slow flowing routine is about
letting go of outcome and learning to love
the process.
ADD usually includes a tendency to overfocusor hyperfocus at times, to obsess or ruminate over
some imagined problem without being able
to let it go.
T’ai Chi teaches the practice of letting
go on a mental, emotional, and physical
level with each exhale.

Sage Sifu Says

T'ai Chi teachers should realize that
T'ai Chi for kids with ADD will not look
like Tai Chi for adults. It will be faster

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AGING, slowing the aging process. Research at Baylor Medical School has found that some cells from the bodies of long-term QiGong practitioners live five times longer than the same cells from ordinary test subjects.

Other research from The Shanghai Institute of Hypertension looked at several aspects of aging. They determined that QiGong is an effective measure in preventing and treating geriatric diseases and delaying the aging process.


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AIDS. Studies indicate regular Tai Chi practice may boost one’s T-cell count, while improving outlook, and providing a soothing gentle exercise. The relaxed forms effectively oxygenate the body while moving blood and lymph throughout.


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ALLERGIES and ASTHMA. The stress-reduction benefits of Tai Chi and QiGong help the body maintain elevated DHEA levels. Low DHEA levels have been directly linked to allergies. High stress levels are linked to the frequency and intensity of asthmatic reactions as well.


Click here for more detailed research on Tai Chi and Allergies.
Click here for Headline News on Allergies and Acupuncture Therapy


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ALZHEIMERS & T'AI CHI ARTICLE.

Al Gibb, H., Morris, C.T., & Gleisberg, J. (1997). A therapeutic programme for people with dementia. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 3(3), 191-199.



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ANGINA. Biofeedback aspects of Tai Chi and QiGong can help students learn to regulate blood flow, by awareness of warmth in hands and feet. Evidence suggests this skill may alleviate some forms of angina.


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ANOREXIA/BULIMIA.

Treating Eating Disorders

Women suffer from eating disorders ten times as often as men. Although often thought of as an adult problem, anorexia and bulimia most often start in the teenage years while the sufferer is still at home. Although I am unaware of any studies on the effectiveness of Tai Chi as therapy for anorexia or bulimia, the underlying issues and symptomology seem to suggest that much of the treatment criteria are embodied in Tai Chi practice.

For example, it is recommended that anorexia or bulimia sufferers strengthen their inner core of self and self-worth. The self-esteem that Tai Chi practice builds and encourages can be a highly effective way to discover the power within one’s self. The need for a restoration of biochemical and hormonal balance may be facilitated with Tai Chi's ability to create a homeostatic effect throughout the body, not only physically, but also mentally and emotionally. T'ai Chi addresses the need to balance internal rhythms and needs with life’s demands by those who practice it so they can become quietly mindful of subtle feelings and needs before they become a crisis born out in acute stress or panic.

Mood swings and depression are a part of bulimic bingeing, and feelings of lack of personal control are a part of many teenagers’ anorexia or bulimia. Food, or denying ourselves food, provides us with a feeling of self-control over a world out of control. T'ai Chis regular practice is designed to help us realize that we have a great deal of control over how we are impacted by the world. This centering enables us to feel more accepting of the fact that much of the world is beyond our control.




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ANXIETY, chronic. The relaxed abdominal breathing that Tai Chi and QiGong promote can be a beneficial adjunct to therapy.


Click here for more detailed medical research on Tai Chi and Anxiety, and Depression.



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ARTHRITIS. Tai Chi's low impact causes no joint damage (unlike other higher impact exercises), while its weight-bearing aspect may encourage development of bone mass and connective tissue. Note: Those with arthritic knees may want to do modified Tai Chi forms sharing weight on both legs rather than fully centering the weight over one knee.


BELOW IS PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ON T'AI CHI AND ARTHRITIS:

1. Kirsteins, A.E., Dietz, F., & Hwang, S.M. (1991). Evaluating the safety and potential use of a weight-bearing exercise, Tai-Chi Chuan, for rheumatoid arthritis patients. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 70(3), 136-141.

2. Hartman, C.A., Manos, T.M., Winter, C., Hartman, D.M., Li, B., & Smith, J.C. (2000). Effects of T'ai Chi training on function and quality of life indicators in older adults with osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48(12):1553-9, 2000 Dec, 48(39 ref), 1553-1559.

3. Van Deusen, J., & Harlowe, D. (1987). The efficacy of the ROM Dance Program for adults with rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41(2), 90-95.

4. Hartman, C.A. (US). Effects of T'ai Chi training on function and quality of life indicators in older adults with osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48(12), Dec-1559


NON-RESEARCH ARTICLES ON T'AI CHI AND ARTHRITIS:

1. Anonymous. (2002). Tai Chi may help OA patients. Orthopedics Today, 22(3):30, 2002 Mar, 22(3), 30

2. Anonymous. Tai chi for elders with chronic arthritis pain. Geriatric Nursing, 22(3):121, 2001 May-Jun, 22(3), 121-Jun

3. Cotter, A.C., Camardese, M.B., & Rigassio, D. (2001). Complementary and alternative medicine approaches to pain management in osteoarthritis. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: State of the Art Reviews, 15(1):157-74, 2001 Feb, 15(99 ref), 157-174.

4. Galantino, M.L.A. (Univ Microfilms International). Blending traditional and alternative strategies for rehabilitation: Measuring functional outcomes and quality of life issues in an AIDS population. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering, 58 (6-B), Univ

5. Horstman, J. (2000). Explorations. Tai chi. Arthritis Today, 14(4):60-2, 2000 Jul-Aug, 14(4), 60-62.

6. Lumsden, D.B., Baccala, A., & Martire, J. (1998). T'ai chi for osteoarthritis: an introduction for primary care physicians. Geriatrics, 53(2):84, 87-8, 1998 Feb, 53(8 ref), 84-88.


7. Yocum, D.E., Castro, W.L., & Cornett, M. (2000). Exercise, education, and behavioral modification as alternative therapy for pain and stress in rheumatic disease. Rheum Dis Clin North Am JID - 8708093, 26(1), 145-1xi.

8. Anonymous. (1994). Medication in motion: tai chi and beyond. University of California Berkeley Wellness Letter, 10(5):7, 1994 Feb, 10(5), 7



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BACK PAIN. Prevention Magazine reported a study where, after one year of T’ai Chi classes, a group of men and women ages 58 to 70 found increased strength and increased flexibility in their back, helping to reduce the odds of back pain.

Click here for more detailed research on Chronic Pain and Tai Chi.


BACK PAIN & T'AI CHI NON-RESEARCH ARTICLES:

1. Atchison, J.W., Taub, N.S., Cotter, A.C., & Tellis, A. (1999). Complementary and alternative medicine treatments for low back pain. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: State of the Art Reviews, 13(3):561-86, 1999 Oct, 13(120 ref), 561-586.

2. Bankhead, C. (1998). T'ai chi helps lower BP in elderly, showing benefit of light physical activity. Medical Tribune, 39(8):10, 1998 Apr 16, 39(8), 10

3. Koh, T.C. (1982). Tai Chi and ankylosing spondylitis--a personal experience. Am J Chin Med JID - 7901431, 10(1-4), 59-61.

4. Abenhaim, L., Rossignol, M., Valat, J., Nordin, M., Avouac, B., Blotman, F., Charlot, J., Dreiser, R.L., Legrand, E., Rozenberg, S., & Vautravers, P. (2000). The role of activity in the therapeutic management of back pain: report of the International Paris Task Force on Back Pain. Spine, 25(4S Suppl):1S-33S, 2000 Feb 15, 25(119 ref), 1S-33S.



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BALANCE DISORDERS. T’ai Chi practitioners fall only half as much as those practicing other balance training, as reported by an Emory University study, and others.

Tai Chi May Help Seniors Avoid Falls

Fitness, Flexibility, Balance, and Confidence Improved in 12-Week Study

June 28, 2005 -- Tai chi, an ancient Chinese martial art, may improve senior citizens' strength and help them avoid falls, South Korean researchers find.

. . . The researchers tested tai chi in older adults. The slow, gentle, and continuous movements help them develop stronger muscles, better balance control, concentration, and psychological well-being.

They found benefits including:

· Stronger knees and ankles

· Better balance and flexibility

· Improved walking

· More confidence in the ability to avoid falls

The tai chi students had fewer falls than others who didn't take the class.

. . . Their study appears in the Journal of Advanced Nursing.

About Tai Chi

Tai chi uses slow, fluid body movements. It's not a jarring form of exercise.

Tai chi has gotten attention from scientists for nearly a decade. The first two tai chi studies funded by the National Institute of Aging were published in 1996.

Those studies found many of the same benefits as seen in the new South Korean study.

. . . Falls in Seniors

Every year, about 30% of people aged 65 and older -- and living on their own -- fall. Falls are more common in long-term care facilities, where 40%-50% of residents fall in any given year. Some of the risk factors that lead to falls in seniors include imbalance, muscle weakness, and lack of flexibility -- all of which are modifiable, they write.

. . . Strength, Flexibility, Balance

The 12-week program was finished by 29 tai chi students and 30 people in the comparison group.

The tai chi students had stronger knees and ankles than their peers. They also improved in flexibility and walking.

SOURCES: Choi, J. Journal of Nursing, July 2005 vol 51: pp 150-157. News release, National Institute on Aging. News release, Journal of Advanced Nursing.

Click here for more detailed research on Balance & Tai Chi.



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BALDNESS (Premature). QiGong and Tai Chi promote stress management and blood circulation. Some QiGong exercises, such as Carry the Moon, specifically promote circulation in the scalp.



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BEHCHET'S DISEASE. Behcet's Disease is a kind of chronic recurrent disease. Neijing Central Hospital of Management claim to have cured five patients of Behcet's Disease. They believe this was due to QiGong’s ability to build up immunological function and increase blood flow volume and by promoting saliva flow and increased oxygen intake.




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BRAIN WAVE CHANGES DURING TAI CHI / MEDITATION



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BREAST CANCER THERAPY (TAI CHI).

Tai Chi Chuan, health-related quality of life and self-esteem: a randomized trial with breast cancer survivors. Mustian KM, Katula JA, Gill DL, Roscoe JA, Lang D, Murphy K.Behavioral Medicine Unit, Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 704, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Karen_Mustian@urmc.rochester.edu

GOALS: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) and self-esteem are often diminished among women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. Tai Chi is a moderate form of exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving HRQL and self-esteem among these women. We sought to compare the efficacy of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) and psychosocial support (PST) for improving HRQL and self-esteem among breast cancer survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A group of 21 women diagnosed with breast cancer, who had completed treatment within the last 30 months were randomized to receive 12 weeks of TCC or PST. Participants in both groups met three times a week for 60 minutes. HRQL and self-esteem were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. RESULTS: The TCC group demonstrated significant improvements in HRQL, while the PST group reported declines in HRQL, with the differences between the two groups approaching significance at week 12. Additionally, the TCC group exhibited improvements in self-esteem, while the PST group reported declines in self-esteem, with the differences between groups reaching statistical significance at week 12. These findings, coupled with a visual inspection of the raw change scores, support the plausibility of a dose-response relationship concerning Tai Chi.

CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot investigation, the TCC group exhibited improvements in HRQL and self-esteem from baseline to 6 and 12 weeks, while the support group exhibited declines.



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BREATHING, ACHES, BLOODPRESSURE: ...participants observed a "big increase in breathing capacity", a disappearance of backaches and neckaches, those with high blood pressure claimed a drop of 10 to 15 mm Hg systolic at rest, and all participants claimed to have more energy in their daily work. Hawaii Medical Journal - Vol 51 No. 8 August 92 BALANCE: A ten year study on aging through Harvard, Yale and Emory University determined not only that T'ai Chi was superior to more technological balance therapies, but that T'ai Chi reduced the risk of injury by falling by 48%. Complications from these injuries are the sixth leading cause of death in older Americans, and account for about $10 billion loss per year to the economy. USA Today, May 1996



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BRITTLE BONES/BONE LOSS IN WOMEN. Research from the National Institute of Mental Health reports that the stress hormones found in depressed women caused bone loss that gave them bones of women nearly twice their age. Tai Chi and QiGong are known to reduce depression and anxiety and provide weight-bearing exercises to encourage building bone mass and connective tissue.

Click here for more detailed research on Bone Loss, Osteoperosis, Menopause and Tai Chi.



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BRONCHITIS/EMPHYSEMA, chronic. Sitting QiGong and/or Tai Chi may show positive results over time in appetite, sleep, and energy levels, but also rather dramatically and healthfully in decreasing breaths per minute.



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BURNS, healing of. Researchers at the Navy General Hospital of Beijing China studied emitted Qi on burnt rats. They noted that the QiGong treatment in some ways expedited the healing ability of burnt rats.




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CANCER. Several clinical studies reported that a combination therapy of drugs with personal practice of QiGong provided a better outcome than drug therapy alone.

Click here for Australian News article on Complimentary Cancer therapy including Tai Chi like Chi Kung exercise.

BELOW IS PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ON T'AI CHI AND CANCER:

1. Mustian K M, Katula J A, Gill D L, Roscoe J A, Lang D, Murphy K. Tai Chi Chuan, health-related quality of life and self-esteem: a randomized trial with breast cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer 2004; (12): 871-876.

NON-RESEARCH ARTICLES ON T'AI CHI AND CANCER:

1. Cassileth, B.R. (1999). Evaluating complementary and alternative therapies for cancer patients. [Review] [60 refs]. Ca: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 49(6), 362-375.


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CARCINOMA. The Guangzhou College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China, researched the effects of emitted Qi on carcinoma. They reported, "The emitted Qi may promote normal function of human immune cells while killing the tumor cells suggesting that QiGong is a feasible means to the treatment of carcinoma."




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CARDIOVASCUALAR BENEFIT. Research has shown that the extremely gentle low impact Tai Chi exercise can provide the same cardiovascular benefit as moderate impact aerobic exercise. The Harvard Women's Health Watch reported, “studies support Tai Chi [use] for heart-attack and cardiac-bypass patients, to improve cardiorespiratory function and reduce blood pressure.”

Click here for information on Tai Chi as a Cardiac Rehabilitation Therapy in British Health System

Click here for more detailed medical research on Tai Chi and Cardiovascular Benefits.

Click here for more detailed medical research on Tai Chi and Cholesterol.




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CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME (CFS). Research in the British Medical Journal (February 2001) showed 84 percent of CFS patients adding exercise to their CFS standard care got "very much" or "much" better, as opposed to only 12 percent of patients receiving only standard care. CFS's chronic pain limitation may make T'ai Chi and QiGong's gentle motions and deep breathing (with its pain management benefits) an optimum exercise for CFS sufferers.




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CHRONIC FATIGUE & IMMUNE DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME (CFIDS). The Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction publication the CFIDS Chronicle (Summer 1999 Edition) had comments from a CFIDS sufferer on success using T’ai Chi as therapy. (You can contact CFIDS Association of America at 1-800-442-3437 or by visiting www.cfids.org online.)




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CHRONIC PAIN. Students often find anything between mild pain relief and complete alleviation of chronic pain by using Tai Chi and/or QiGong, in some cases finding complete relief from long-term chronic pain conditions.


Click here for more detailed research on Chronic Pain and Tai Chi.



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CIRCULATION & NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS. Tai Chi promotes circulation and can have a very integrating effect on the mind and body.




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COMPULSIVE, OBSESSIVE DISORDERS. T’ai Chi and QiGong’s mindful awareness of self and constant reassurance that we can breathe through and relax into any situation may be a helpful adjunct to therapy for OCD, which gently exposes patients to their fears. Again, introduce T’ai Chi and QiGong only with your therapist’s approval.




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CONCENTRATION/QIGONG USES IN EDUCATION. Although researchers in this study in Xinjiang China admit limitations in their research, they find encouraging signs that QiGong exercises could greatly enhance the educational experience for primary school children and beyond.




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CORONARY DISEASE. Ganshu College of TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) in China claimed to have found strong evidence that QiGong exercises may help with coronary disease.




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DEPRESSION & MOOD DISTURBANCE. Regular (daily) T'ai Chi practitioners usually find less incidence of depression and overall mood disturbance.

Relative to measurement beforehand, practice of T'ai Chi raised heart rate, increased nonadrenaline excretion in urine, and decreased salivary cortisol concentration. Relative to baseline levels, [Test Subjects] reported less tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion and state-anxiety; they felt more vigorous, and in general they had less total mood disturbance.

(American Psychological Association) Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1989 Vol 33 (2) 197-206



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"Tai Chi Can Help Control Type 2 Diabetes"

LONDON: Tai Chi Chuan, the traditional Chinese martial arts exercises, could help curb symptoms of type 2 diabetes, according to a new study.

The study suggested that Tai Chi might prompt a fall in blood glucose levels, or improve blood glucose metabolism, triggering a drop in the inflammatory response, reports the British Medical Journal.

The findings of the study indicate that regular Tai Chi Chuan exercise improves T cell helper function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an increase in T-bet transcription factor and IL-12 production.

T cells are a vital constituent of the body's immune system, which generate powerful chemicals, including interleukins (ILs), which alter the immune response.

READ MORE AT:

Medical News Today - UK

NewIndPress - INDIA

Ivanhoes Medical Breakthroughs

DIABETES. T'ai Chi's stress management and increased circulation qualities make it ideal for diabetes. A Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology study found that blood sugar could be lowered successfully by doing QiGong exercises. 42.9 percent of patients in the study were able to take less medicine while having more staple foods. Nanjing University's study found that Tai Chi exercise helped to regulate metabolic disorder of type 2 diabetes mellitus with geriatric obesity by regulating the nervous-endocrine system in the body.




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DIGESTION, improving. T’ai Chi’s gentle massage of internal organs and stimulation of blood circulation and Qi promote healthy digestion.




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DRUG UPTAKE. The QiGong Institute reviewed voluminous studies done worldwide and concluded that QiGong and drug therapies are superior to drug therapy alone. The reason for this is believed to be found in QiGong’s ability to enhance Qi and blood circulation to that area so that nutrients may more efficiently be delivered to the affected cells, and also waste products in the stressed tissue can be removed more readily.




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EXERCISE, BALANCE & STRENGTH.

BELOW IS PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ON T'AI CHI AND EXERCISE, BALANCE, & STRENGTH RESULTS

1. Chan, W.W., & Bartlett, D.J. (2000). Effectiveness of Tai Chi as a therapeutic exercise in improving balance and postural control. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 17(3):1-22, 2000, 17(42 ref), 1-22.

2. Tsang W W, Hui-Chan C W. Comparison of muscle torque, balance, and confidence in older tai chi and healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; (37): 280-289.

3. Anonymous. (2000). Tai chi for strength and endurance: study finds increased muscle gains in elderly subjects. Acupuncture Today, 1(11):1, 4, 2000 Nov, 1(1 ref), 1

4. Thornton E W, Sykes K S, Tang W K. Health benefits of Tai Chi exercise: improved balance and blood pressure in middle-aged women. Health Promot Int 2004; (19): 33-38.

5. Hass C J, Gregor R J, Waddell D E, Oliver A, Smith D W, Fleming R P, Wolf S L. The influence of Tai Chi training on the center of pressure trajectory during gait initiation in older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; (85): 1593-1598.

6. Tsang W W, Hui-Chan C W. Effects of exercise on joint sense and balance in elderly men: Tai Chi versus golf. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; (36): 658-667.

7. Tsang W W, Hui-Chan C W. Effect of 4- and 8-wk intensive Tai Chi Training on balance control in the elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; (36): 648-657.

8. Tsang W W, Wong V S, Fu S N, Hui-Chan C W. Tai Chi improves standing balance control under reduced or conflicting sensory conditions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; (85): 129-137.

9. Lan C, Chen S Y, Lai J S. Relative exercise intensity of Tai Chi Chuan is similar in different ages and gender. Am J Chin Med 2004; (32): 151-160.

10. Chen, K., & Snyder, M. (1999). A research-based use of Tai Chi/movement therapy as a nursing intervention. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17(3):267-79, 1999 Sep, 17(33 ref), 267-279.

11. Chen, K., Snyder, M., & Krichbaum, K. (2001). Facilitators and barriers to elders' practice of t'ai chi: a mind-body, low-intensity exercise. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 19(3):238-55, 2001 Sep, 19(29 ref), 238-255.

12. Fontana, J.A. (1902). "The energy costs of a modified form of T'ai Chi exercise": Errata. Nursing Research, 49(3), May-Jun

13. Fontana, J.A., Colella, C., Wilson, B.R., & Baas, L. (2000). The energy costs of a modified form of T'ai Chi exercise. [erratum appears in Nurs Res 2000 May-Jun;49(3):145.]. Nursing Research, 49(2), 91-96.

14. Forrest, W.R. (1997). Anticipatory postural adjustment and T'ai Chi Ch'uan. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 33, 65-70.

15. Hong, Y., Li, J.X., & Robinson, P.D. (2000). Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners. Br J Sports Med JID - 0432520, 34(1), 29-34.

16. Hugel, K., & Sciandra, T. (2000). The effects of a 12-week Tai Chi program on thoracolumbar, hip, and knee flexion in adults 50 years and older. Issues on Aging, 23(3):15-8, 2000, 23(22 ref), 15-18.

17. Jacobson, B.H., Chen, H.C., Cashel, C., & Guerrero, L. (1997). The effect of T'ai Chi Chuan training on balance, kinesthetic sense, and strength. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 84(1), 27-33.

18. Judge, J.O., Lindsey, C., Underwood, M., & Winsemius, D. (1993). Balance improvements in older women: effects of exercise training. Physical Therapy, 73(4), 254-262.

19. Lan, C., Lai, J.S., Chen, S.Y., & Wong, M.K. (1998). 12-month Tai Chi training in the elderly: its effect on health fitness. Med Sci Sports Exerc JID - 8005433, 30(3), 345-351.

20. Li, F., McAuley, E., Harmer, P., & Duncan, T. (US). Tai Chi enhances self-efficacy and exercise behavior in older adults. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 9(2), Apr-171


21. Lin, Y.C., Wong, A.M., Chou, S.W., Tang, F.T., & Wong, P.Y. (2000). The effects of Tai Chi Chuan on postural stability in the elderly: preliminary report. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi JID - 9809559, 23(4), 197-204.


22. Parker, M.G., Hocking, K., Katus, J., Stockert, E., & Gruby, R. (2000). The effects of a three-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on isometric muscle strength and balance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study. Issues on Aging, 23(2):9-13, 2000, 23(10 ref), 9-13.

23. Shih, J. (1997). Basic Beijing twenty-four forms of T'ai Chi exercise and average velocity of sway. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 84(1), 287-290.

24. Slater, J., & Hunt, H.T. (1997). Postural-vestibular integration and forms of dreaming: a preliminary report on the effects of brief T'ai Chi Chuan training. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 85(1), 97-98.

25. Sun, W.Y., Dosch, M., & Gilmore, G. (US). Effects of a Tai Chi Chuan program on Hmong American older adults. Educational Gerontology, 22(2), Mar-167

26. Taggart, H.M. (2001). Self-reported benefits of t'ai chi practice by older women. J Holist Nurs JID - 8506709, 19(3), 223-232.

27. Taggart, H.M. (2002). Effects of Tai Chi exercise on balance, functional mobility, and fear of falling among older women. Appl Nurs Res JID - 8901557, 15(4), 235-242.

28. Taggert, H.M. (2000). Tai Chi, balance, functional mobility, fear of falling, and health perception among older women. University of Alabama at Birmingham D, S.N.(168 p), 168

29. Tse, S., & Bailey, D.M. (1992). T'ai chi and postural control in the well elderly. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46(4):295-300, 1992 Apr, 46(42 ref), 295-300.

30. Voukelatos, A., & Metcalfe, A. Central Sydney Tai Chi Trial: methodology. New South Wales Public Health Bulletin, 13(1-2), 19-Feb

31. Wolf, S.L. (2001). From tibialis anterior to Tai Chi: biofeedback and beyond. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback JID - 9712383, 26(2), 155-174.

32. Wolf, S.L., Barnhart, H.X., Ellison, G.L., & Coogler, C.E. (1997). The effect of Tai Chi Quan and computerized balance training on postural stability in older subjects. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies on Intervention Techniques. Physical Therapy, 77(4), 371-381.

33. Wolf, S.L., Coogler, C., & Xu, T. (1997). Exploring the basis for Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil JID - 2985158R, 78(8), 886-892.

34. Wolfson, L., Whipple, R., Derby, C., Judge, J., King, M., Amerman, P., Schmidt, J., & Smyers, D. (1996). Balance and strength training in older adults: intervention gains and Tai Chi maintenance. J Am Geriatr Soc JID - 7503062, 44(5), 498-506.

35. Wolfson, L., Whipple, R., Judge, J., Amerman, P., Derby, C., & King, M. (1993). Training balance and strength in the elderly to improve function. J Am Geriatr Soc JID - 7503062, 41(3), 341-343.

36. Wong, A.M., Lin, Y.C., Chou, S.W., Tang, F.T., & Wong, P.Y. (2001). Coordination exercise and postural stability in elderly people: Effect of Tai Chi Chuan. Arch Phys Med Rehabil JID - 2985158R, 82(5), 608-612.

37. Wu, G., Zhao, F., Zhou, X., & Wei, L. (2002). Improvement of isokinetic knee extensor strength and reduction of postural sway in the elderly from long-term Tai Chi exercise. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 83(10), 1364-1369.

38. Yalom, I.D., Bond, G., Bloch, S., Zimmerman, E., & Friedman, L. (1977). The impact of a weekend group experience on individual therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34(4), 399-415.

NON-RESEARCH ARTICLES ON T'AI CHI AND EXERCISE:

1. Chh eng, J. (1902). Exercise adviser. Tai chi chuan: a slow dance for health. Physician & Sportsmedicine, 27(6):109-10, 105-7, 7, 1999 Jun, 27(6), 109-110.

2. Cumming, R.G. (2002). Intervention strategies and risk-factor modification for falls prevention. A review of recent intervention studies. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 18(2), 175-189.

3. Allison, M.T. (1902). Nature of leisure activities among the Chinese-American elderly. Leisure Sciences, 15(4), Oct-Dec

4. Baer, K. (1997). Exercise: a movement toward T'ai Chi. Harvard Health Letter, 22(9):6-7, 1997 Jul, 22(9), 6-7.

5. Bottomley, J.M. (2000). The use of Tai Chi as a movement modality in orthopaedics. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America, 9(3):361-73, 2000 Sep, 9(52 ref), 361-373.

6. Bramnick, J. (1902). Tune in to tai chi: this gentle form of exercise can improve strength and reduce stress for young and old alike. Health & You, 16(3):18-9, 31, 2000 Fall, 16(3), 18-19.

7. Brudnak, M., Dundero, D., & Van Hecke, F. (2002). Are the 'hard' martial arts, such as the Korean e martial art, TaeKwon-Do, of benefit to senior citizens? Med Hypotheses JID - 7505668, 59(4), 485

8. Bunyan, L.E. (2000). Tai chi and the art of downsizing. Natl Netw JID - 9507560, 25(2), 6-7, 27.


9. Hain, T.C., Fuller, L., Weil, L., & Kotsias, J. (1999). Effects of T'ai Chi on balance. Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, 125(11):1191-5, 1999 Nov, 125(27 ref), 1191-1195.

10. Horowitz, S. (1999). Homeopathic and other treatments for vertigo and dizziness. Alternative & Complementary Therapies, 5(2):74-8, 1999 Apr, 5(18 ref), 74-78.

11. Kirsteins, A. (1998). Tai-Chi Chuan... Wolfe SL, Coogler C, Tingse X. Exploring the basis for Tai-Chi-Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;8:886-92. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 79(4):471, 1998 Apr, 79(1 ref), 471

12. Koh, T.C. (1981). Tai Chi Chuan. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 9(1), 15-22.

13. Lan, C., Lai, J., & Chen, S. (2002). Tai chi chuan: an ancient wisdom on exercise and health promotion. Sports Medicine, 32(4):217-24, 2002, 32(43 ref), 217-224.

14. Lan, C., Lai, J.S., & Chen, S.Y. (1902). Tai Chi Chuan: an ancient wisdom on exercise and health promotion. Sports Med JID - 8412297, 32(4), 217-224.

15. e Lan, C., Lai, J.S., Chen, S.Y., & Wong, M.K. (2000). Tai Chi Chuan to improve muscular strength and endurance in elderly individuals: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil JID - 2985158R, 81(5), 604-607.

16. Lehman, R.A. (1998). Contemporary conditioning. T'ai Chi for balance, part 1. Athletic Therapy Today, 3(5):17-8, 1998 Sep, 3(5), 17-18.

17. Levitt, R., & Shuff, P. (1997). Balance and harmony: the essence of T'ai Chi. Nursing Spectrum (Washington, Dc/Baltimore Metro Edition), 7(18):14, 1997 Sep 8, 7(2 bib), 14

18. Luskin, F.M., Newell, K.A., Griffith, M., Holmes, M., Telles, S., DiNucci, E., Marvasti, F.F., Hill, M., Pelletier, K.R., & Haskell, W.L. (2000). A review of mind/body therapies in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders with implications for the elderly. [Review] [91 refs]. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 6(2), 46-56.

19. Meusel, H. (1902). Sport and exercise training suitable for older people. [German]. Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie, 19(6), Nov-Dec

20. Ng, R.K. (1992). Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of tai chi. Hawaii Med J JID - 2984209R, 51(8), 216-217.

21. Schaller, K.J. (1996). Tai Chi Chih: an exercise option for older adults. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 22(10), 12-17.

22. Wu, G. (2002). Evaluation of the effectiveness of Tai Chi for improving balance and preventing falls in the older population--a review. [Review] [54 refs]. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(4), 746-754.

23. Yu, T., & Johnson, J. (2000). T'ai chi fundamentals for health professionals and instructors/T'ai chi fundamentals: simplified exercises for beginners. Physical Therapy, 80(11):1132-3, 2000 Nov, 80(11), 1132-1133.




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FALLS & EXERCISE.

BELOW IS PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ON T'AI CHI AND FALLS / EXERCISE

1. Li, F., Fisher, K.J., Harmer, P., & McAuley, E. (2002). Delineating the impact of Tai Chi training on physical function among the elderly. Am J Prev Med JID - 8704773, 23(2 Suppl), 92-97.

2. Li F, Fisher K J, Harmer P, McAuley E. Falls self-efficacy as a mediator of fear of falling in an exercise intervention for older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2005; (60): 34-40.

3. Li, F., Harmer, P., McAuley, E., Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Chaumeton, N., & Fisher, K.J. (2001). An evaluation of the effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical function among older persons: a randomized contolled trial. Ann Behav Med JID - 8510246, 23(2), 139-146.

4. Li F, Harmer P, Fisher K J, McAuley E. Tai Chi: improving functional balance and predicting subsequent falls in older persons. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; (36): 2046-2052.

5. Li, F., Harmer, P., McAuley, E., Fisher, K.J., Duncan, T.E., & Duncan, S.C. (2001). Tai Chi, self-efficacy, and physical function in the elderly. Prev Sci JID - 100894724, 2(4), 229-239.

6. Nowalk, M.P., Prendergast, J.M., Bayles, C.M., D'Amico, F.J., & Colvin, G.C. (2001). A randomized trial of exercise programs among older individuals living in two long-term care facilities: the FallsFREE program. J Am Geriatr Soc JID - 7503062, 49(7), 859-865.

7. Province, M.A., Hadley, E.C., Hornbrook, M.C., Lipsitz, L.A., Miller, J.P., Mulrow, C.D., Ory, M.G., Sattin, R.W., Tinetti, M.E., & Wolf, S.L. (1995). The effects of exercise on falls in elderly patients. A preplanned meta-analysis of the FICSIT Trials. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. JAMA JID - 7501160, 273(17), 1341-1347.

8. Wilson, C.J., & Datta, S.K. (2001). Tai chi for the prevention of fractures in a nursing home population: an economic analysis. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management, 8(3):19-27, 2001 Mar, 8(46 ref), 19-27.

9. Shaughnessy, A. (1902). Can an in-home exercise program decrease falls and injuries in elderly women? Evidence-Based Practice, 1(2):7, insert 2p, 1998 Feb, 1(2), 7

10. Skelton, D.A., & Dinan, S.M. (1999). Exercise for falls management: rationale for an exercise programme aimed at reducing postural instability. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 15(2):105-20, 1999 Jun, 15(70 ref), 105-120.

11. Wolf, S.L., Barnhart, H.X., Kutner, N.G., McNeely, E., Coogler, C., & Xu, T. (1996). Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44(5):489-97, 1996 May, 44(44 ref), 489-497.

12. Wolf, S.L., Kutner, N.G., Green, R.C., & McNeely, E. (1993). The Atlanta FICSIT study: two exercise interventions to reduce frailty in elders. J Am Geriatr Soc JID - 7503062, 41(3), 329-332.

13. Wolf, S.L., Sattin, R.W., O'Grady, M., Freret, N., Ricci, L., Greenspan, A.I., Xu, T., & Kutner, M. (2001). A study design to investigate the effect of intense Tai Chi in reducing falls among older adults transitioning to frailty. Controlled Clinical Trials, 22(6), 689-704.

14. Chen, K. (1902). Moral and ethical dimensions of the informed consent in Tai Chi practice. Graduate Research Nursing, 1(2):5p, 1999 Oct-Nov, 1(17 ref), 5p-Nov

15. Lavizzo-Mourey, R., Cox, C., Strumpf, N., Edwards, W.F., Stinemon, M., & Grisso, J.A. (2001). Attitudes and beliefs about exercise among elderly African Americans in an urban community. J Natl Med Assoc JID - 7503090, 93(12), 475-480.

16. Ross, M.C., Bohannon, A.S., Davis, D.C., & Gurchiek, L. (1999). The effects of a short-term exercise program on movement, pain, and mood in the elderly. Results of a pilot study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17(2), 139-147.

17. Scott, A.H. (1999). Wellness works: community service health promotion groups led by occupational therapy students. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53(6):566-74, 1999 Nov-Dec, 53(69 ref), 566-574.

18. Scott, A.H., & Butin, D. (US). Occupational therapy as a means to wellness with the elderly. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 18(4), 2001-2022.


NON-RESEARCH ARTICLES ON T'AI CHI AND FALLS:

1. Gillespie, L.D., Gillespie, W.J., Robertson, M.C., Lamb, S.E., Cumming, R.G., & Rowe, B.H. (1902). Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people. [see comments.] [update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000340 ; 10796348.]. [Review] [182 refs]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD000340

2. Kessenich, C.R. (1998). Tai Chi as a method of fall prevention in the elderly. [Review] [8 refs]. Orthopaedic Nursing, 17(4), 27-29.

3. Krucoff, C. (2000). If they had been active, the mighty might not have fallen... for the elderly, dancing, tai chi and strength training can all help prevent falls. Los Angeles Times, (Health):S1, S4, 2000 Jul 31, (Health), S1

4. Landsmann, M.A. (1902). The power of Tai Chi: eastern and western medicine unite to prevent falls in the elderly. Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation, 8(10):41-2, 62, 1999 Oct, 8(1 ref), 41-42.




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FIBROMYALGIA. Fibromyalgia is a modern epidemic, a chronic pain condition affecting 6 to 8 percent of the U.S. population. Tai Chi has been recommended by some health professionals as a very desirable adjunct therapy for sufferers. In 2000, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimores' study of a nonpharmacologic intervention in fibromyalgia resulted in Twenty of 28 subjects completed at least 5 of the 8 sessions of a Qigong Program. Significant improvement was seen in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and a range of other outcome measures including tender points and pain threshold. Improvement was sustained 4 months after the end of the intervention.




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FLEXIBILITY enhancement. Harvard Women’s Health Watch reported an Emory University study showing that Tai Chi may possibly improve elasticity in ligaments and tendons, create stronger knee flexors and extensors, and create better posture.




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GALL STONES. The Navy General Hospital, Beijing China, did a study using emitted Qi to find if a particular emitted Qi therapy could help people pass gall stones. They found a positive treatment rate of 93.33 percent.




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GASTRITIS. Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a common yet difficult illness, according to researchers at the Institute for Industry Health in Xian China. Studying the effect of a combination of QiGong exercise with Tuina (Chinese therapeutic massage), they found that 97.1 percent of patients found some benefit.




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GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANT TUMORS. The Department of Chinese Medicine, Second Affiliate Hospital with Jiangxi Medical College found that a group of patients using QiGong exercises with their standard chemotherapy, radiotherapy and Chinese medicine, had a significantly higher survival rate than those only getting standard medical therapy with no QiGong exercises.




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GENERAL HEALTH.


GENERAL BENEFITS:
[T'ai Chi] teaches inner strength while toning muscles, increasing flexibility, and boosting immune power. It is also said to reduce stress, store up energy, increase body awareness, and improve balance and coordination. T'ai Chi was the closely held secret of a few Chinese families for nearly 1,000 years... Men's Health Magazine. 8 Mar/Apr '93 p. 66-69


GENERAL HEALTH & T'AI CHI NON-PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ARTICLES:


1. hCassileth, B.R. (1999). Complementary therapies: overview and state of the art. [Review] [5 refs]. Cancer Nursing, 22(1), 85-90.

2. Anonymous. (1996). Exercise. Tai chi. Harvard Women's Health Watch, 4(3):4, 1996 Nov, 4(3), 4

3. Anonymous. (2002). Exercises for mind and body. American Institute for Cancer Research Newsletter, (75):12, 2002 Spring, (75), 12

4. Anonymous. (1996). What's new. Tai Chi: a prescription for improving balance and reducing falls... Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, May 1996. Geriatrics, 51(6):11, 1996 Jun, 51(6), 11

5. Anonymous. (1902). Fitness forum. A no-sweat exercise with multiple benefits. Tufts University Health & Nutrition Letter, 17(10):1, 7, 1999 Dec, 17(10), 1

6. Anonymous. (1998). Fitness. Tai chi: smooth, balanced, low-impact. University of California Berkeley Wellness Letter, 15(2):6, 1998 Nov, 15(2), 6

7. Anonymous. (1998). Shaping up. Tai chi for mind and body. Consumer Reports on Health, 10(11):8, 1998 Nov, 10(11), 8

8. Anonymous. (2000). Tai chi: meditative movement for health. Harvard Women's Health Watch, 8(4), 6

9. Anonymous. (2001). Falling for tai chi. Physiotherapy Moves, (18):16, 2001 May, (18), 16

10. Beeton, K. (2001). Tai Chi Chuan for persons with haemophilia: commentary. Haemophilia JID - 9442916, 7(4), 437-Beeton, K.

11. Benor, D.J. (1995). The Louisville Programme for medical student health awareness. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 3(2):93-9, 1995 Apr, 3(63 ref), 93-99.

12. Brown, E.L., I. (Univ Microfilms International). The efficacy of using the game of Goe to understand patterns of east asian thinking. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering, 58(8-B), Univ

13. Cassileth, B.R. (1999). Complementary therapies. Complementary therapies: overview and state of the art. Cancer Nursing, 22(1):85-90, 1999 Feb, 22(5 ref), 85-90.

14. Cerrato, P.L. (1902). Complementary therapies. Tai chi: a martial art turns therapeutic. RN, 62(2):59-60, 75, 1999 Feb, 62(4 ref), 59-60.

15. Cerrato, P.L. (1999). Tai chi: a martial art turns therapeutic. RN, 62(4):10, 1999 Apr, 62(2), 59-60.

16. Chen, K., Snyder, M., & Krichbaum, K. (2001). Clinical use of tai chi in elderly populations. Geriatric Nursing, 22(4):198-200, 2001 Jul-Aug, 22(17 ref), 198-200.

17. Chen, K.M. (US). Tai chi and well-being of Taiwanese commmunity-dwelling elders. Clinical Gerontologist, 24(3-4), 2001-2156.

18. Chen, K.M., Snyder, M., & Krichbaum, K. (2001). Clinical use of tai chi in elderly populations. [Review] [17 refs]. Geriatric Nursing, 22(4), 198-200.

19. Chen, W.W. (US). Tai Chi Chuan, an alternative form of exercise for health promotion and disease prevention for older adults in the community. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 16(4), 1997-339.

20. Choy, P.C.K. (2000). Tai-Chi push hands. Positive Health, (55):9-12, 2000 Aug, (55), 9-12.

21. Danusantoso, H., & Heijnen, L. (2001). Tai Chi Chuan for people with haemophilia. Haemophilia JID - 9442916, 7(4), 437-439.

22. Donnelly, J., Hollenbeck, W., & Eburne, N. (2000). Redefining classroom management through Tai Chi: it's all about fluidity and balance. International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 3(2):84-8, 2000 Apr 1, 3(5 ref), 84-88.

23. Douglas, B. (1902). Centered in chaos: what can t'ai chi and qigong teach us? Massage & Bodywork, 15(2):24-5, 28, 2000 Apr-May, 15(2), 24-25.

24. Ebell, M. (1902). Do wellness programs improve patient outcomes? Evidence-Based Practice, 1(5):2, insert 2p, 1998 May, 1(5), 2

25. Farrell, S.J., Ross, A.D., & Sehgal, K.V. (1999). Eastern movement therapies. [Review] [54 refs]. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 10(3), 617-629.

26. Fasko, D.J., & Grueninger, R.W. (2001). T'ai Chi Ch'uan and physical and psychological health: a review. Clinical Kinesiology: Journal of the American Kinesiotherapy Association, 55(1):4-12, 2001 Spring, 55(46 ref), 4-12.

27. Fritsch, D., Watts, S., & Yu, P. (1902). Range of motion dance: bodyworkers add another healing technique to their tool kits. Massage & Bodywork, 15(3):12-5, 18-20, 22, 2000 Jun-Jul, 15(3), 12-15.

28. Gibbs, J., Kattapong, K., St.John, J., & Kushner, R.F. (2002). Assessing hospital-based wellness services using an outcome measurement system. Health Promotion Practice, 3(1):60-75, 2002 Jan, 3(9 ref), 60-75.

29. Gorman, C. (2002). Why Tai Chi is the perfect exercise. Time JID - 9877130, 160(6), 68-Gorman, Christine.

30. Hayden, G. (2002). Complementary medicine's LTC pioneers. Long-Term Care Interface, 3(3):20-5, 2002 Mar, 3(8 ref), 20-25.

31. Ives, J.C., & Sosnoff, J. (1902). Beyond the mind-body exercise hype. Physician & Sportsmedicine, 28(3):67-8, 70, 75-6 passim, 2000 Mar, 28(10 bib), 67-68.

32. Jancewicz, A. (2001). Tai Chi Chuan's role in maintaining independence in ageing people with chronic disease. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies, 5(1):70-7, 2001 Jan, 5(59 ref), 70-77.

33. Kirsteins, A. (1998). Tai-Chi Chuan. [letter; comment.] [see comments.]. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 79(4), 471

34. La Forge, R. (1997). Mind-body fitness: encouraging prospects for primary and secondary prevention. J Cardiovasc Nurs JID - 8703516, 11(3), 53-65.

35. Lam, P. (1998). New horizons ... developing tai chi for health care. Australian Family Physician, 27(1-2), 100-101.

36. Lee, Y. (p)). Traditional conceptions of health and nursing in Korea. THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH ** 1992 PH, D.(177 p)

37. Lewis, D.E. (2000). T'ai chi ch'uan. [Review] [4 refs]. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 6(4), 204-206.

38. Luskin, F.M., Newell, K.A., Griffith, M., Holmes, M., Telles, S., DiNucci, E., Marvasti, F.F., Hill, M., Pelletier, K.R., & Haskell, W.L. (1902). A review of mind/body therapies in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders with implications for the elderly. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 6(2):46-52, 54-6, 2000 Mar, 6(91 ref), 46-52.

39. Lutz, S. (1996). The benefits of Tai Chi. Beginnings JID - 9303087, 16(4), 3-Lutz, S.

40. Masley, S. (1998). Tai Chi Chuan. Arch Phys Med Rehabil JID - 2985158R, 79(11), 1483-Masley, S.

41. Mason, R.B. (2000). Accrediting traditional Chinese medicine in the West: the magnum opus of Stuart Watts, O.M.D., L.Ac. Alternative & Complementary Therapies, 6(4):197-202, 2000 Aug, 6(4), 197-202.

42. Mckee, D. (Univ Microfilms International). Self-unfolding: The parts, processes, principles, and patterns of development as understood in eastern meditative, native north American, and western scientific traditions. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering, 58(9-B), Univ

43. Kenna, M. (2001). The application of Tai Chi Chuan in rehabilitation and preventive care of the geriatric population. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 18(4):23-34, 2001, 18(46 ref), 23-34.

44. McKenna, M. (US). The application of Tai Chi Chuan in rehabilitation and preventive care of the geriatric population. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 18(4), 2001-2034.

45. Meyer, J.F. (1902). The right place is here, the right time is now: Taiji as mental and physical therapy. Diamant, Louis (Ed), (1991), Social-162

46. Moegling, K. (1997). How Tai Chi Chuan influences health: some observations and results [German]. Krankengymnastik: Zeitschrift fur Physiotherapeuten, 49(6):950-8, 1997, 49(6 ref), 950-958.

47. Moffet, H. (1996). Acupuncture and Oriental medicine update. Alternative & Complementary Therapies, 2(2):115-7, 1996 Mar-Apr, 2(10 ref), 115-117.

48. Pierce, J. (US). Choice theory and Ta'i Chi Ch'uan: Are there any similarities? International Journal of Reality Therapy, 18(1), Fal-45

49. Plummer, J.P. (1981). Acupuncture and homeostasis: physiological, physical (postural) and psychological. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 9(1), 1-14.

50. Quarta, C. (2002). Tai chi in a chair. Bottom Line/Health, 16(4):11-3, 2002 Apr, 16(4), 11-13.

51. Race, R. (1999). How to find Tai Chi classes that are therapeutic... Tai Chi: a martial art turns therapeutic (Complementary Therapies, February). RN, 62(4):10, 1999 Apr, 62(4), 10

52. Ranzini, A.A. (2001). Use of complementary medicines and therapies among obstetric patients. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 97(4), S46

53. Ritchie, J.M. (2001). Journey into another realm seeking answers in energy medicine. Journal of Christian Nursing, 18(4):16-7, 2001 Fall, 18(4), 16-17.

54. Rochford, M. (2002). Tai chi for health and rejuvenation. Positive Health, (77):50-3, 2002 Jun, (3 ref), 50-53.

55. Rochman, S. (2001). MAMM companion. The wonders of Tai Chi: Chinese martial art energizes mind and body. Mamm, 3(5):61-2, 2001 Mar, 3(5), 61-62.

56. Ross, M.C., & Presswalla, J.L. (1998). Clinical outlook. The therapeutic effects of Tai Chi for the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 24(2):45-7, 1998 Feb, 24(20 ref), 45-47.

57. Ross, M.C., & Presswalla, J.L. (1998). The therapeutic effects of Tai Chi for the elderly. [Review] [23 refs]. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 24(2), 45-47.

58. Rudin-Braschi, H. (2001). Move it or lose it! T'ai Chi is for seniors. Rediscover Eggs!, 4(2):2-4, 2001, 4(5 ref), 2-4.

59. Scott, A.H., Butin, D.N., Tewfik, D., Burkardt, A., Mandel, D., & Nelson, L. (2001). Occupational therapy as a means to wellness with the elderly. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 18(4):3-22, 2001, 18(65 ref), 3-22.

60. Shaller, K. Tai chi/movement therapy. Complementary/alternative therapies in nursing (Snyder M et al), Springer Publ(New York, NY), 1998-47.

61. Wanning, T. (1993). Healing and the mind/body arts: massage, acupuncture, yoga, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais. AAOHN Journal, 41(7), 349-351.

62. Ward, J. (2001). Tai Chi for older people. Nursing Older People, 13(1), 10-13.

63. Watkins, K. (2000). Creative therapy. Promoting healing through graceful movement. Premier Outlook, 1(1):7, 2000 Summer, 1(1), 7

64. Woods, E. (2002). Martial arts and physical therapy: exploring the connections. Pt--Magazine of Physical Therapy, 10(5):30-5, 2002 May, 10(5), 30-35.

65. Cassileth, B.R. (2002). Beyond the mainstream. Tai chi may pay off in unconventional ways. Los Angeles Times, :S6, 2002 Feb 4, S6

66. Zwick, D., Rochelle, A., Choksi, A., & Domowicz, J. (2000). Evaluation and treatment of balance in the elderly: A review of the efficacy of the Berg Balance Test and Tai Chi Quan. NeuroRehabilitation, 15(1), 49-56.




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GERIATRIC FITNESS. Prevention Magazine reported that "Tai Chi may be the best exercise for people over the age of 60" providing cardio fitness, muscle strength, and flexibility all in one simple workout that is easy on the joints.” Also, other studies show that Tai Chi is by far the best balance conditioner. Research finding that T’ai Chi may also lessen tissue brittleness even further adds to the case that Tai Chi is the best possible exercise for seniors.




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HEART DISEASE. At the Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, a research study found that Tai Chi and QiGong practice can positively affect the states of mind of subjects to lessen the incidence of Type-A behavior patterns, believed to increase the risk of heart disease.


BBC News - Saturday, 9 October, 2004, 23:22 GMT 00:22 UK


Tai Chi 'can treat heart failure'

A US study of 30 patients found regular classes gave patients better movement and reduced BNP levels, a measure of heart failure.

A number of the patients attended twice weekly classes for 12 months while a second group had standard treatment.

The British Heart Foundation said the study was "excellent news" and Tai Chi could be adopted into treatment programmes in the UK in the future.


Click here for more detailed medical research on Tai Chi and Cholesterol.



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HEMORROIDS. Some QiGong breathing involves the sphincter muscles, which may directly alleviate hemorrhoid symptoms. Tai Chi's ability to reduce constipation lessens the aggravation of hemorrhoid symptoms.




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HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE. T’ai Chi can significantly lower high blood pressure in many cases.

Click here for more detailed research information regarding Tai Chi as High Blood Pressure Therapy.

Click here for more detailed medical research on Tai Chi and Cholesterol.

For a reprintable article with research citings and more information on this, read, High Blood Pressure and Tai Chi Therapy by WTCQD Founder.



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IMMUNE SYSTEM: A study conducted in China indicates that T'ai Chi may increase the number of T lymphocytes in the body. Also know as T-Cells, these lymphocytes help the immune system destroy bacteria and possibly even tumor cells Prevention Magazine V. 42, May 90, p.14-15

Click here for more detailed research infomration on Tai Chi and the Immune System.




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INFECTIONS. Regular Tai Chi practice is believed to increase the T-cell count. T-cells are thought to consume viruses, bacteria, and even tumor cells.

A new study indicates that Tai Chi practiced three times per week may boost people resistence to viruses by 50%. This study was regarding the shingles virus in particular but the researchers believe Tai Chi may have a powerful effect in raising resistence to other types of infection as well.

WATCH THE VIDEO OF THIS ABOVE STUDY AT DRKOOP.COM
http://www.drkoop.com/video/93/2177/_Tai_Chi_Infection_Protection.html




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INSOMNIA. Insomnia is a growing problem in our rushed digitized world. Tai Chi & Qigong sStudents often remark of improved sleep and reduced insomnia after a few weeks of regular Tai Chi and QiGong practice. At the QiGong Department of Ningbo Hospital of TCM, in China, they gave 78 patients suffering from insomnia, treatments involving QiGong Meditation (Sitting QiGong), coupled with QiGong self-massage of several acupressure points including in the wrists. After one course of treatment, 35 cases were cured (good sleep for more than 6 hours a day, no concomitant symptoms any more), 22 cases showed obvious effect (sleeping for 4-6 hours per day with other concomitant symptoms ameliorated obviously), 9 cases showed some effect (better sleep than before with other concomitant symptoms ameliorated a little), 2 cases showed no effect (just like before). So, 76 out of 78 found relief from insomnia using QiGong without the need for drugs.

Click here for more detailed research on Insomnia, Sleep Quality, and Tai Chi.


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KNEE STRENGTHENING. Knee problems are a common problem as we age. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, conducted a study on older adults using 20 weeks of Tai Chi training. The overall findings suggest that Taiji (Tai Chi) training improves knee extensor strength and force control in older adults.

Click here for more detailed research on Bone Loss, Osteoperosis, Menopause and Tai Chi.




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LEUKEMIA. The Immunology Research Center, Beijing, China, studied the effects of externally emitted Qi, to see how it affects Leukemia cells in mice. They found the mice treated with Qi emission had reduced numbers of L1210 cells (malignant tumor cells). However, researchers cautioned that the mechanism and the way emitted Qi does this needs to be further investigated.





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LIVER DISEASE, hepatitis-B, and the like. At Lixin County Hospital of TCM in Anhui province, China, they found that ten kinds of liver diseases, especially B Type Hepatitis, could be cured with the combination of drugs and QiGong.





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LOU GEHRIG'S DISEASE. T’ai Chi is recommended by many support groups of neuromuscular diseases. Check with your doctor to discuss introducing T’ai Chi as an adjunct to your therapy.





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LOW BLOOD PRESSURE. At Lixin County Hospital of TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) researchers believed QiGong combined with standard drug therapy to be good for low blood pressure.





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MENOPAUSAL THERAPY. The QiGong Institute reviewed voluminous studies done worldwide and concluded that QiGong and drug therapy is superior to drug therapy alone, including in the case of menopausal treatments. This mechanism of enhanced drug delivery suggests that QiGong could make possible smaller doses of drugs, which would cause less adverse side effects. For example, QiGong is reported to restore estradiol levels in hypertensive, menopausal women, leading to the possibility that estrogen replacement therapy might not be necessary or might be used at reduced levels.

Click here for more detailed research on Bone Loss, Osteoperosis, Menopause and Tai Chi.



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MENSTRUAL DISORDERS. Researchers at PLA General Hospital in Beijing, China, used acupressure, massage, and emitted Qi to treat 76 cases of various gynepathic diseases. The results were that 52 (68.42 percent) cases were nearly cured, 14 (18.42 percent) markedly effective, and 10 (13.16 percent) cases found the treatment to be effective.

Click here for more detailed research on Bone Loss, Osteoperosis, Menopause and Tai Chi.




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MENTAL HEALTH. The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, conducted studies to see how QiGong practice would affect mental health. The result was that a group that had practiced QiGong for over two years had a curative rate on symptoms of psychosomatic disorders about twice as high as a QiGong group practicing less than two years.



MENTAL HOMEOSTASIS: Pscyhological homeostasis refers to emotional control or tranquility. It has been stated that the biological function of human emotion and repression is primarily homeostatic. Evidence suggests that a feedback relationship exists between forms of homeostasis, and the body-mind type of therapies (including acupuncture and T'ai Chi) thus have a combined physiological, physical, and psychological effect. (American Psychological Association) American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 1981 Spr Vol 9 (1) 1-14





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MIGRAINE. Biofeedback aspects of Tai Chi and QiGong can help students learn to regulate blood flow by increasing awareness of warmth in hands and feet. Evidence suggests this skill may alleviate some forms of migraines.




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MOTOR CONTROL.

BELOW ARE PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ON T'AI CHI & MOTOR CONTROL RESULTS.


1. Ferrari, M. (1999). Influence of Expertise on the Intentional Transfer of Motor Skill. J Mot Behav, 31(1), 79-85.

2. Fem rrari, M. (US). Influence of expertise on the intentional transfer of motor skill. Journal of Motor Behavior, 31(1), Mar-85

3. Yalden, J., & Chung, L. (2001). Tai Chi: towards an exercise program for the older person. [Review] [56 refs]. Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 8(1), 4-13.

4. Yan, J.H. (1998). Tai Chi practice improves senior citizens' balance and arm movement control. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 6(3):271-84, 1998 Jul, 6(54 ref), 271-284.

5. Yan, J.H. (1999). Tai chi practice reduces movement force variability for seniors. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences, 54(12), M629-M634

6. Yan, J.H., & Downing, J.H. (1998). Tai Chi: an alternative exercise form for seniors. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 6(4):350-62, 1998 Oct, 6(22 ref), 350-362.




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MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. MS support groups recommend T’ai Chi.




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MUSCLE WASTING (and other tissue deterioration). Studies indicate that Tai Chi may be an ideal exercise to help older people suffering muscle wasting.




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NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH & T'AI CHI




NEUROTRANSMITTERS
and QiGong’s effect on them and how that impacts health. Researchers at Anhui College of TCM asserted that their research indicates that neurotransmitters are affected by QiGong practice in such a way to help regulate the function of the neuralgic system in such a way to prevent and help cure diseases.


TAIJI (TAI CHI) RESEARCH SHOWS NEURAL CHANGES

Date: 4/3/2006 11:53:26 AM Eastern Daylight Time


The current Journal of Aging Clinical and Experimental Research has just published an article by Dr. Strawberry Gatts detailing neural changes with only 3 weeks/ 1.5 hrs day/ 5 days a week of a Tai Chi Balance Therapy program.

The reference is not yet in Pubmed, but can be found under curent issue at: http://www.kurtis.it/en/riviste.cfm?rivista=aging&id=6&sezione=4&last=6

Neural mechanisms underlying balance improvement with short term Tai Chi training

Strawberry K. Gatts1 and Marjorie Hines Woollacott2
1,2Department of Human Physiology and Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA

Background and aims: Though previous research has shown that Tai Chi reduces falls risk in older adults, no studies have examined underlying neural mechanisms responsible for balance improvement. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Tai Chi training in improving neuromuscular response characteristics underlying balance control in balance-impaired older adults.

Read more at:
http://www.kurtis.it/en/riviste.cfm?rivista=aging&id=6&sezione=4&last=6




BELOW IS PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ON T'AI CHI & NEUROLOGICAL BENEFITS.


1. Achiron, A., Barak, Y., Stern, Y., & Noy, S. (1997). Electrical sensation during Tai-Chi practice as the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Clinical Neurology & Neurosurgery, 99(4), 280-281.

2. Hart J, Kanner H, Gilboa-Mayo R, Haroeh-Peer O, Rozenthul-Sorokin N, Eldar R. Tai Chi Chuan practice in community-dwelling persons after stroke. Int J Rehabil Res 2004; (27): 303-304.

3. Mills, N., & Allen, J. (2000). Mindfulness of movement as a coping strategy in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. General Hospital Psychiatry, 22(6):425-31, 2000 Nov-Dec, 22(25 ref), 425-431.

4. Shapira, M.Y., Chelouche, M., Yanai, R., Kaner, C., & Szold, A. (2001). Tai Chi Chuan practice as a tool for rehabilitation of severe head trauma: 3 case reports. Arch Phys Med Rehabil JID - 2985158R, 82(9), 1283-1285.


NEUROLOGICAL BENEFITS & T'AI CHI NON-PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ARTICLES:

1. Husted, C., Pham, L., Hekking, A., & Niederman, R. (1999). Improving quality of life for people with chronic conditions: the example of t'ai chi and multiple sclerosis. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 5(5), 70-74.

2. Kressig, R.W., & Wolf, S.L. (2001). Exploring guidelines for the application of T'ai Chi to patients with stroke. Neurology Report, 25(2):50-4, 2001 Jun, 25(20 ref), 50-54.

3. Mills, N., Allen, J., & Morgan, S.C. (2000). Does Tai Chi/Qi Gong help patients with multiple sclerosis? Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies, 4(1):39-48, 2000 Jan, 4(21 ref), 39-48.

4. Vanderbilt, S. (1902). Moving with t'ai chi: regaining strength, self-esteem despite MS. Massage & Bodywork, 15(5):48-50, 52, 54-7, 2000 Oct-Nov, 15(6 ref), 48-50.





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OSTEOPOROSIS

Click here for more detailed research on Bone Loss, Osteoporosis, Menopause and Tai Chi.


BELOW ARE PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ON T'AI CHI BENEFITS FOR OSTEOPOROSIS

1. Qin, L., Au, S., Choy, W., Leung, P., Neff, M., Lee, K., Lau, M., Woo, J., & Chan, K. (2002). Regular Tai Chi Chuan exercise may retard bone loss in postmenopausal women: A case-control study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil JID - 2985158R, 83(10), 1355-1359.

2. Chan K, Qin L, Lau M, Woo J, Au S, Choy W, Lee K, Lee S. A randomized, prospective study of the effects of Tai Chi Chun exercise on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; (85): 717-722.


OSTEOPOROSIS BENEFITS & T'AI CHI NON-PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ARTICLES:


1. Henderson, N.K., White, C.P., & Eisman, J.A. (1998). The roles of exercise and fall risk reduction in the prevention of osteoporosis. [Review] [149 refs]. Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America, 27(2), 369-387.

2. Kessenich, C.R. (2002). Continuing education -- CE 282. Alternative therapies in osteoporosis. Nursing Spectrum (Washington, Dc/Baltimore Metro Edition), 12(10):14-6, 2002 May 20, 12(23 ref), 14-16.

3. Lane, J.M., & Nydick, M. (1999). Osteoporosis: current modes of prevention and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg JID - 9417468, 7(1), 19-31.



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OVARIAN CYST. Researchers at PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China, found a high success rate using a combination of acupressure, massage, and emitted Qi in curing or positively affecting the majority of cases of various gynepathic diseases, including ovarian cyst.




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PAIN.

BELOW FIND RESEARCH ON T'AI CHI & PAIN CONDITIONS.


1. Jp erosch, J., & Wustner, P. (2002). [Effect of a sensorimotor training program on patients with subacromial pain syndrome]. Unfallchirurg JID - 8502736, 105(1), 36-43.

2. Morris, L. (2000). Tai chi -- relieving a painful shoulder injury. Positive Health, (51):21-3, 2000 Apr, (51), 21-23.

PAIN CONDITION BENEFITS & T'AI CHI NON-PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ARTICLES:

1. Anderson, C. (2000). What's new in pain management? Home Healthcare Nurse, 18(10):648-58, 2000 Nov-Dec, 18(28 ref), 648-658.

2. Jin, P. (1902). Theoretical perspectives on a form of physical and cognitive exercise Tai Chi. Davidson, Graham (Ed), (1994), Lessons-Oceania




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PARALYSIS. Researchers at the PLA General Hospital of Beijing studied the effect of emitted Qi combined with QiGong exercises in treating paralysis. The effect of the treatment judged by the indexes of rehabilitation commonly used, was “excellent” in 23.25 percent of cases, “good” in 46.5 percent, “fine” in 23.25 percent, and “bad” in 6.99 percent of cases, with an overall effective rate of 93.01 percent.




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PARKINSON'S DISEASE /improving motor-skill control. Parkinson's support groups recommend T’ai Chi, and many students claim significant reduction in tremors.

Qigong exercise reduces symptoms of Parkinson's disease

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

QIGONG HELPS REDUCE THE MOTOR & NON-MOTER SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Schmitz-Hubsch et al. of Germany published their study in a recent issue of Movement Disorders: Qigong exercise helps reducing the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled pilot study.

ABSTRACT: Irrespective of limited evidence, not only traditional physiotherapy, but also a wide array of complementary methods are applied by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated the immediate and sustained effects of Qigong on motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD, using an add-on design. Fifty-six patients with different levels of disease severity (mean age/standard deviation [SD], 63.8/7.5 years; disease duration 5.8/4.2 years; 43 men [76%]) were recruited from the outpatient movement disorder clinic of the Department of Neurology, University of Bonn. We compared the progression of motor symptoms assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor part (UPDRS-III) in the Qigong treatment group (n = 32) and a control group receiving no additional intervention (n = 24). Qigong exercises were applied as 90-minute weekly group instructions for 2 months, followed by a 2 months pause and a second 2-month treatment period.

Assessments were carried out at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. More patients improved in the Qigong group than in the control group at 3 and 6 months (P = 0.0080 at 3 months and P = 0.0503 at 6 months; Fisher's exact test). At 12 months, there was a sustained difference between groups only when changes in UPDRS-III were related to baseline.

Depression scores decreased in both groups, whereas the incidence of several nonmotor symptoms decreased in the treatment group only. (Movement Disorders, 2005 Oct 14).

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112117934/HTMLSTART

Provided by: http://www.qigonginstitute.org/

http://pub21.ezboard.com/bqigonginstitute





For research citings and more information on this, read, Parkinson's and Tai Chi Therapy by WTCQD Founder.


SUPPORT GROUPS RECOMMENDING T'AI CHI: MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS FIBROMYALGIA PARKINSON'S DISEASE LUPUS MIGRAINES CHRONIC PAIN AIDS: Proper exercise [for AIDS sufferers] is typified by T'ai Chi. Dr. Laurence E. Badgley, M.D. PSYCHOLOGY: "T'ai Chi is a natural and safe vehicle for both clients and staff to learn and experience the benefits of being able to channel, concentrate and co-ordinate their bodies and minds: to learn to relax and to "neutralize" rather than resist the stress in their personal lives. This is an ability which we greatly need to nurture in our modern fast-paced society. Dr. John Beaulieu, N.D., M.T.R.S. Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital, N.Y.C. [Refer to the T'ai Chi book "The Supreme Ultimate" for full text]


Click here for specific PARKINSON'S DISEASE & T'AI CHI MEDICAL RESEARCH



Qigong exercise helps reducing the motor and
non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease


Contributed by Kevin Chen:


Schmitz-Hubsch et al. of Germany published their study in a recent issue of

Movement Disorders: Qigong exercise helps reducing the motor and non-motor

symptoms of Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled pilot study.

ABSTRACT: Irrespective of limited evidence, not only traditional

physiotherapy, but also a wide array of complementary methods are applied

by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated the immediate and

sustained effects of Qigong on motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD, using an

add-on design. Fifty-six patients with different levels of disease severity

(mean age/standard deviation [SD], 63.8/7.5 years; disease duration 5.8/4.2

years; 43 men [76%]) were recruited from the outpatient movement disorder

clinic of the Department of Neurology, University of Bonn. We compared the

progression of motor symptoms assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease

Rating Scale motor part (UPDRS-III) in the Qigong treatment group (n = 32)

and a control group receiving no additional intervention (n = 24). Qigong

exercises were applied as 90-minute weekly group instructions for 2 months,

followed by a 2 months pause and a second 2-month treatment period.

Assessments were carried out at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. More

patients improved in the Qigong group than in the control group at 3 and 6

months (P = 0.0080 at 3 months and P = 0.0503 at 6 months; Fisher's exact

test). At 12 months, there was a sustained difference between groups only

when changes in UPDRS-III were related to baseline. Depression scores

decreased in both groups, whereas the incidence of several nonmotor

symptoms decreased in the treatment group only. (Movement Disorders, 2005

Oct 14).

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112117934/HTMLSTART




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PHYSIOLOGICAL BENEFITS: Relative to measurement beforehand, practice of T'ai Chi raised heart rate, increased nonadrenaline excretion in urine, and decreased salivary cortisol concentration. Relative to baseline levels, [Test Subjects] reported less tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion and state-anxiety; they felt more vigorous, and in general they had less total mood disturbance.
(American Psychological Association) Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1989 Vol 33 (2) 197-206



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POSTURAL CONTROL.

T'ai Chi, a traditional Chinese exercise, is a series of individual dance like movements linked together in a continuous, smooth-flowing sequence ... An analysis of variance (ANOVA) domonstrated that in 3 of 5 tests, the T'ai Chi practitioners had significantly better postural control than the sedentary non practitioners. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 1992 Apr Vol 46 (4) 295-300


POSTURE PROBLEMS. T’ai Chi’s gentle mindful awareness of postural adjustment make it a wonderful therapy for posture problems and for alleviating the pain or chronic tension associated with them.




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PSYCHOSOCIAL.


BELOW ARE PEER REVIEWED STUDIES ON THE PSYCHOSOCIAL BENEFITS OF T'AI CHI

1. Blinde, E.M. (US). Enhancing the physical and social self through recreational activity: Accounts of individuals with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14(4), Oct-344

2. Chou K L, Lee P W, Yu E C, Macfarlane D, Cheng Y H, Chan S S, Chi I. Effect of Tai Chi on depressive symptoms amongst Chinese older patients with depressive disorders: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004; (19): 1105-1107.

3. Blinde, E.M., & McClung, L.R. (1997). Enhancing the physical and social self through recreational activity: accounts of individuals with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14(4):327-44, 1997 Oct, 14(59 ref), 327-344.

4. Kutner, N.G., Barnhart, H., Wolf, S.L., McNeely, E., & Xu, T. (1997). Self-report benefits of Tai Chi practice by older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci JID - 9508483, 52(5), 242-246.

5. Li, F., Harmer, P., Chaumeton, N.R., Duncan, T., & Duncan, S. (2002). Tai Chi as a means to enhance self-esteem: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 21(1):70-89, 2002 Mar, 21(36 ref), 70-89.

6. Bond, D.S. (US). Moderate aerobic exercise, T'ai Chi, and social problem-solving ability in relation to psychological stress. International Journal of Stress Management, 9(4), Oct-343

7. Li, F. (US). Enhancing the psychological well-being of elderly individuals through Tai Chi exercise: A latent growth curve analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(1), 2001-2083.

8. Szabo, A., Mesko, A., Caputo, A., & Gill, E. (1902). Examination of exercise-induced feeling states in four modes of exercise. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29(4), Oct-Dec

9. Naruse, K. (US). Effects of slow tempo exercise on respiration, heart rate and mood state. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 91(3, Pt 1), Dec-740

10. Slater, J. (US). Postural-vestibular integration and forms of dreaming: A preliminary report on the effects of brief T'ai Chi Chuan training. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 85(1), Aug-98

11. Kawano, R. (Univ Microfilms International). The effect of exercise on body awareness and mood. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering, 59(7-B), Univ

PSYCHOSOCIAL BENEFITS & T'AI CHI NON-PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ARTICLES:

1. Chen, K. (2000). The effects of Tai Chi on the well-being of community-dwelling elders in Taiwan. University of Minnesota Ph, D.(183 p), 183

2. Davidson, G. (1902). Applying psychology: Lessons from Asia-Oceania. (1994), x, 170pp.

3. Reinemann, D. (Univ Microfilms International). ROM Dance: A treatment for symptoms of depression and anxiety in adults with mental retardation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering, 60(3-B), Univ

4. Devitt, M. (1902). Tai Chi for the elderly: studies show exercise relieves pain, improves mobility in seniors. Acupuncture Today, 2(8):1, 21, 2001 Aug, 2(3 ref), 1




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PSYCHOTHERAPY. A German researcher points out that QiGong is gradually gaining prominence as a therapeutic tool in Germany, and pointed to positive effects of QiGong exercises for those dealing with neurosis, depression, anxiety, psychosomatic disorder, and psychosis. They caution that a wrong practice of the exercises, as pertains to specially sick people, can have bad effects and these subjects require competent guidance and assistance.




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RELAXATION.

BELOW IS PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH ON RELAXATION & T'AI CHI.

1. Sandlund, E.S. (US). The effects of Tai Chi Chuan relaxation and exercise on stress responses and well-being: An overview of research. International Journal of Stress Management, 7(2), Apr-

2. Jin, P. (1989). Changes in heart rate, noradrenaline, cortisol and mood during Tai Chi. J Psychosom Res JID - 0376333, 33(2), 197-206.

3. Wang Y T, Taylor L, Pearl M, Chang L S. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and mental health of college students. Am J Chin Med 2004; (32): 453-459.

4. Jin, P. (1992). Efficacy of Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. J Psychosom Res JID - 0376333, 36(4), 361-370. Li F, Fisher K J, Harmer P, Irbe D, Tearse R G, Weimer C. Tai chi and self-rated quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; (52): 892-900.

5. Jin, P. (US). Changes in heart rate, noradrenaline, cortisol and mood during Tai Chi. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33(2), 1989-206.

6. Brown, D.R., Wang, Y., Ward, A., Ebbeling, C.B., Fortlage, L., Puleo, E., Benson, H., & Rippe, J.M. (1995). Chronic psychological effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies. Med Sci Sports Exerc JID - 8005433, 27(5), 765-775.




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RESPIRATORY DISEASES, chronic. A collaborative study with the Research Institute of TCM, Tainjin College of TCM, and Tianjin Thorax Surgery Hospital was done on patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, asthma, pulmonary emphysema, and cor pulmonale. A group treated with QiGong exercise and drugs fared better than the one treated only with drugs.

Click here for more detailed research on Tai Chi and Respiratory Improvement.



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REHABILITATION & IMMUNITY STRENGTHENING. The Institute of Medical Science, at Wonkwang University, in Korea found that of those patients who’d used QiGong Exercise Programs, 84% of respondents reported improvement in recovery time, 66.6% reported reduced inflammation after Qigong and 50.3% reported no scarring as compared to before. In addition, 59.9% of respondents reported an increase in resistance to the common cold after four months of Qigong.




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RHEUMATISM. OT Week magazine reported, “Areas where T’ai Chi has proven effective include rheumatism; weight management; treatment of back problems; management of high blood pressure; and stress reduction … and may speed recovery in postoperative patients ….”




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SEXUAL PERFORMANCE. T’ai Chi’s stress reduction and promotion of circulation can make it a very healthful way to improve sexual performance.




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SLEEP DISORDERS. Practicing tai chi exercises regularly can improve sleep as well as daytime functioning in elderly people with moderate sleep disorders, reports the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (2004;52:892–900).
bastyrcenter.org/content/view/322/




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STOMACH CARCINOMA. The General Navy Hospital in Beijing studied the effects of emitted Qi on NK cells, which they believe play a role in cancer. They found a statistically remarkable effect of emitted Qi killing both adenocarcinoma cells of the stomach and the NK cells.




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STRENGTH ENHANCEMENT. After one year of Tai Chi classes a group of men and women ages 58 to 70 found increased strength.




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STROKE REHABILITATION THERAPY (TAI CHI). Tai Chi Chuan practice in community-dwelling persons after stroke. Hart J, Kanner H, Gilboa-Mayo R, Haroeh-Peer O, Rozenthul-Sorokin N, Eldar R. Loewenstein Hospital Rehabilitation Center, Raanana, Israel.

Eighteen community-dwelling first-stroke survivors, aged 45 to 65, underwent following examinations: Romberg's Test, standing on the unaffected leg, Emory Fractional Ambulation Profile, the Berg Balance Test, the Timed 'Up and Go' Test and the Duke Health Profile. They were then randomly divided into two matched groups of 9 subjects each. The study group (SG) received Tai Chi exercises and the control group (CG) physiotherapy exercises focused on improvement of balance, both groups for 1 h twice weekly for 12 weeks. On completion of exercises, SG (TAI CHI) subjects showed improvement in social and general functioning whereas CG subjects showed improvement in balance and speed of walking. It is concluded that there are potential and no adverse effects in Tai Chi practice in stroke survivors.



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TEARS, CLEANSING MECHANISMS and QiGong. Psychology Today reported that the Tear Research Center has discovered crying may cleanse chemicals from the body that build up during emotional stress, including ACTH, a hormone that is considered the body’s most reliable indicator of stress. Sitting QiGong’s progressive relaxation therapy often leaves practitioners wiping away tears, perhaps explaining why we feel clearer and lighter after practice.



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VESTIBULAR REHABILITATION (TAI CHI)

Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation improve vestibulopathic gait via different neuromuscular mechanisms: preliminary report. McGibbon CA, Krebs DE, Parker SW, Scarborough DM, Wayne PM, Wolf SL.Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B5A3, Canada. cmcgibb@unb.ca

Full article available at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=15717934

BACKGROUND: Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is a well-accepted exercise program intended to remedy balance impairment caused by damage to the peripheral vestibular system. Alternative therapies, such as Tai Chi (TC), have recently gained popularity as a treatment for balance impairment. Although VR and TC can benefit people with vestibulopathy, the degree to which gait improvements may be related to neuromuscular adaptations of the lower extremities for the two different therapies are unknown. METHODS: We examined the relationship between lower extremity neuromuscular function and trunk control in 36 older adults with vestibulopathy, randomized to 10 weeks of either VR or TC exercise. Time-distance measures (gait speed, step length, stance duration and step width), lower extremity sagittal plane mechanical energy expenditures (MEE), and trunk sagittal and frontal plane kinematics (peak and range of linear and angular velocity), were measured. RESULTS: Although gait time-distance measures were improved in both groups following treatment, no significant between-groups differences were observed for the MEE and trunk kinematic measures. Significant within groups changes, however, were observed. The TC group significantly increased ankle MEE contribution and decreased hip MEE contribution to total leg MEE, while no significant changes were found within the VR group. The TC group exhibited a positive relationship between change in leg MEE and change in trunk velocity peak and range, while the VR group exhibited a negative relationship.

CONCLUSION: Gait function improved in both groups consistent with expectations of the interventions. Differences in each group's response to therapy appear to suggest that improved gait function may be due to different neuromuscular adaptations resulting from the different interventions. The TC group's improvements were associated with reorganized lower extremity neuromuscular patterns, which appear to promote a faster gait and reduced excessive hip compensation. The VR group's improvements, however, were not the result of lower extremity neuromuscular pattern changes. Lower-extremity MEE increases corresponded to attenuated forward trunk linear and angular movement in the VR group, suggesting better control of upper body motion to minimize loss of balance. These data support a growing body of evidence that Tai Chi may be a valuable complementary treatment for vestibular disorders.



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Calorie Burning / Weight Loss



SOURCE ON BELOW TAI CHI BURNING CHART

http://www.nutristrategy.com/activitylist3.htm

Weight of practitioner: 130 155 190

TAI CHI:

Calories burned per hour: 236 281 345

SURFING (BOARD or BODY)

177 211 259

VERY BRISK WALKING:

Calories burned per hour: 236 281 345

WATER AEROBICS / WATER CALISTENICS:

Calories burned per hour: 236 281 345

SKATEBOARDING:

295 352 431

http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/113/110878.htm


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Medicine Making You Fat

SOURCES: Louis Aronne, MD, director, Comprehensive Weight Control Program, New York; president, North American Association for the Study of Obesity; clinical professor of medicine, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York. George L. Blackburn, MD, PhD, associate professor of Nutrition, Harvard Medical School. Madelyn H. Fernstrom, PhD, director, Weight Management Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

. . . . promoters of weight gain . . . . Some other common offenders, says Fernstrom, include the antidepressants Paxil and Zoloft, the antiseizure medication Depakote, diabetes drugs like Diabeta and Diabinese, and the high blood pressure drugs Cardura and Inderal. Heartburn drugs like Nexium and Prevacid may also cause drug-induced weight gain.



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GENERAL BENEFITS: [T'ai Chi] teaches inner strength while toning muscles, increasing flexibility, and boosting immune power. It is also said to reduce stress, store up energy, increase body awareness, and improve balance and coordination. T'ai Chi was the closely held secret of a few Chinese families for nearly 1,000 years... Men's Health Magazine. 8 Mar/Apr '93 p. 66-69



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PHYSIOLOGICAL BENEFITS: Relative to measurement beforehand, practice of T'ai Chi raised heart rate, increased nonadrenaline excretion in urine, and decreased salivary cortisol concentration. Relative to baseline levels, [Test Subjects] reported less tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion and state-anxiety; they felt more vigorous, and in general they had less total mood disturbance.
(American Psychological Association) Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1989 Vol 33 (2) 197-206




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MENTAL HOMEOSTASIS: Pscyhological homeostasis refers to emotional control or tranquility. It has been stated that the biological function of human emotion and repression is primarily homeostatic. Evidence suggests that a feedback relationship exists between forms of homeostasis, and the body-mind type of therapies (including acupuncture and T'ai Chi) thus have a combined physiological, physical, and psychological effect. (American Psychological Association) American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 1981 Spr Vol 9 (1) 1-14



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IMMUNE SYSTEM: A study conducted in China indicates that T'ai Chi may increase the number of T lymphocytes in the body. Also know as T-Cells, these lymphocytes help the immune system destroy bacteria and possibly even tumor cells Prevention Magazine V. 42, May 90, p.14-15



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BREATHING, ACHES, BLOODPRESSURE: ...participants observed a "big increase in breathing capacity", a disappearance of backaches and neckaches, those with high blood pressure claimed a drop of 10 to 15 mm Hg systolic at rest, and all participants claimed to have more energy in their daily work. Hawaii Medical Journal - Vol 51 No. 8 August 92 BALANCE: A ten year study on aging through Harvard, Yale and Emory University determined not only that T'ai Chi was superior to more technological balance therapies, but that T'ai Chi reduced the risk of injury by falling by 48%. Complications from these injuries are the sixth leading cause of death in older Americans, and account for about $10 billion loss per year to the economy. USA Today, May 1996



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MENTAL & PHYSICAL STRESS: Mind & body exercises, such as ... T'ai Chi ... are increasingly replacing high-impact aerobics, long distance running and other body punishing excercises of the 1980's ...Mind/body workouts are kinder to the joints and muscles . . reduce the tension that often contributes to the development of disease, which makes them especially appropriate for high powered, stressed out baby boomers. Unlike most conventional exercises, these forms are intended to stretch, tone, an relax the whole body instead of isolating parts ... based on a series of progressive choreographed movements coordinated with deep breathing. Working Woman Magazine V 20 Feb. 95 p. 60-62+



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Health Tip: Handling Stress - Excerpt from DrKoop.com, for entire article go to:
http://www.drkoop.com/newsdetail/93/521875.html

It's a silent killer

(HealthDayNews) -- Modern life is full of time pressure and frustration. Stress develops when the demands in your life exceed your ability to cope with them.

Here, then, are some helpful coping techniques from the Mayo Clinic:

. . . If you have persistent trouble relaxing, consider taking up meditation or studying yoga or tai chi. Therapeutic massage may also loosen taut muscles and calm frazzled nerves.



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Click here to learn how Stress causes most illness physician treat.




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BEYOND TRADITIONAL CARE: Health practitioners encountering clients who are faced with problems that do not seem to respond to traditional health care ... may employ some of the health traditions of other cultures and to view the body and mind as a balanced whole. Massage, acupuncture and T'ai Chi ... focus on the mind/body connection to facilitate healing through relaxation, pressure points, and movement. AAOHN Journal, 1993 July, 41 (7) 349-351




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CURES/PREVENTIONS: Proponents claim that T'ai Chi can also (1) cure illnesses such as hypertension, asthma, and insomnia; (2) prevent arteriosclerosis and spinal deformity, and (3) shorten recovery phase from long-term illness. Results from a study by Chen Munyi (1963) with elderlyl T'ai Chi practitioners show that this group had RTs, strength, and flexibility superior to nonpractitioners. (American Psychological Association) American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 1981 Spr Vol 9(1) 15-22



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BALANCE: Institute of Chicago indicates that people with moderate balance problems can be helped by practicing T'ai Chi. Participants...of the 2 month course ...experienced about a 10 percent improvement in balance. An Emory University study supports Hain's findings. Prevention Magazine V. 46 Dec. 94 p. 71-72




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RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: No significant exacerbation of joint symptoms using this weight bearing system of exercises (Tai Chi) was observed. T'ai Chi exercises appear to be safe for RA patients...weight bearing exercises have the potential advantages of stimulating bone growth and strengthening connective tissue, ... American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, June 1991, 70 (3) p. 136-141



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TAI CHI & GESTALT THERAPY: Discussion of T'ai Chi, a Chinese system of integrated exercises, as an effective adjunct to Gestalt Therapy. (American Psychological Association) Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 1978 Fall Vol 10 (1) 25-31




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PSYCHOSOMATIC ILLNESS: A holistic paradigm, T'ai Chi, is proposed as a theoretical basis for treating psychosomatic illness. (American Psychological Assn.) Journal of Black Psychology, 1980 Aug. Vol 7(1) 27-43



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TAI CHI HELPS UNDERSTAND CHANGE: Suggests the imagery of the T'ai Chi figure ... can serve as a model for understanding the processes of change within psychotherapy. The T'ai Chi figure expresses the themes of unity and completeness, the dynamic of interplay and balance of opposite forces, and the cyclical nature of therapeutic change. (American Psychological Assn.) Psychologia, An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 1991 Mar Vol 34 (1) 18-27



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ELDERLY: According to T'ai Chi enthusiasts, the discipline can prevent many ailments, including high blood pressure, tuberculosis, and diabetes, and US scientists agree that T'ai Chi can offer some important fitness benefits, particularly for older adults. Modern Maturity, V. 35 June/July 92 p. 60-62



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CARDIORESPERITORY EFFECTS: Conclusion: The data substatiate that practicing T'ai Chi regularly may delay the decline of cardioresperatory function in older individuals. In addition, TC may be prescribed as a suitable aerobics exercise for older adults. Journal of American Geriatric Society, Nov. 1995, 43 (11) p 1222-1227 ISSN 0002-8614 Journal Code: H6V



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SPORTS HEALTH: [Former] Boston Celtic's star Robert Parish, who, at age 39, is the oldest player in the NBA, credits the ancient martial art of T'ai Chi with his durability. Parish remains dominant in his 17th season in the league, and he has no plans to retire. He started all 79 games that he played last year for the Celtics, averaging 14.1 points, shooting 54 percent from the field and 77 percent from the free throw line, and racking up a season total of 705 rebounds and 97 blocked shots. Inspired by his success, fellow Celtics players Reggie Lewis and Rick Fox have signed on with Li (Parish's T'ai Chi instructor). Gentlemen's Quarterly V. 62 Dec. 92, p 256-60 March 13, 1999



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LANCET (Vol 353) Reporting research results on t'ai chi. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 1999; 47:277-84. It reports a randomized study and gives blood pressure numbers.



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Acceptance Through Science

By: Dr Paul Lam and Nancy Kieffer

Acceptance Through Science ? Copyrights Dr Paul Lam. All rights reserved, no part of this article may be reproduced in any forms or by any means, without permission in writing.

We all know that Tai Chi benefits our physical and mental health. We know that because we've heard it from others. We've probably experienced it ourselves. That's not enough. The way for Tai Chi to be propagated by official bodies is through scientific studies. Governments and large organizations have heard about the benefits of Tai Chi as have many physicians and other scientists. But they need proof, the kind of proof that only scientific studies offer. Currently the going word for health planners worldwide is "evidence based." To be supported, a program needs to have scientific evidence, just as a doctor is required to practice evidenced-based medicine.

Keep in mind, though, that not all types of studies suffice. Take case studies, for example, a fairly common method used in the medical world. With this type of study, case histories are recorded and analyzed carefully. Sometimes, certain cases are followed for years, as was done with comparing identical twins, some of whom are brought up together, others separately. Identical twin studies are useful in finding out which outcomes can be attributed to genetic factors and which to environmental factors.

Case studies can be very useful, and sometimes they are the only choice in order to avoid adverse effects on the subjects. But the case-study method doesn't use a control, which eliminates the possibility of comparison. Thus, the results of the studies can always be attributed to other causes. We could tell the scientific world that hundreds of our students benefited from Tai Chi, but that won't have any effect. The scientific world won't budge without a controlled study, or to be more precise, a randomized controlled study.

Emory University used this type of study in 1996 to investigate the prevention of falls in older people. This study, called the FICSIT study (Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques), had a tremendous impact on the acceptance of Tai Chi.

Approximately 200 patients were divided into three groups. The first group used a computer-controlled biofeedback machine to improve their balance. The second group did Tai Chi. And the third group, called the Education Group, was the control group. This latter group met and talked about nutrition, which is considered to have no effect on the prevention of falls. The results of the study showed that the Tai Chi group had a 47.5 percent lower rate of falls compared to the biofeedback machine group that improved by only 12.5 percent.

Let me give you a concrete example of how the FICSIT study influences health planners. Last year, the Sydney Central Area Health Promotion Unit won a grant of $200,000 from the New South Wales Health Department to use Tai Chi to study falls in the community. Now $200,000 might not sound like a lot of money for a study, but our State Health Department is known to be stingy, and to get that amount for a Tai Chi study is unheard of. It was the FICSIT study that prompted the state's generosity.

Through my contacts I've heard of similar cases throughout the world. In fact, there have been many funded studies of fall prevention studies using Tai Chi.

As a Tai Chi expert as well as a practicing physician who has suffered from arthritis since my early 20s, I've been particularly interested in using Tai Chi to promote better health, especially where arthritis is concerned. In 1997, I, along with two prominent rheumatology professors and a physiotherapist and several Tai Chi colleagues, created the Tai Chi for Arthritis program to help people who suffer from that ailment. The program won the endorsement of the Australian Arthritis Foundation.

At that point, it seemed natural that America's Arthritis Foundation would support this program. No way! I was told at the time that they could not adapt it without scientific evidence. It took over two years and another scientific study to make this happen.

That study, was done last year at the Korean National University. Three Korean professors have conducted a randomized controlled study that tested the success of the Tai Chi for Arthritis program in managing arthritis symptoms and improving physical fitness and functioning in older people with arthritis. The study confirmed that the Tai Chi group reported significantly less pain, fewer difficulties in the activities of daily living, and better sense of wellbeing in general.

In November 2001, the Korean study was presented at the American College of Rheumatology's annual scientific meeting. And that's when America's Arthritis Foundation decided to adapt the program.

We seem to be following the same pattern that the study of exercise did. The first research studies on exercise were limited to how exercise benefited health. Then the research became more specific, looking at what exercise helped and how it worked. And then it moved on to what specific exercise helped which part of the body, how the exercise was executed, and so on.

The way I see it, the study of the benefits of Tai Chi is still in its infancy. We have a way to go. We have different styles and forms of Tai Chi, even differences between individuals doing the same style and form. Scientific studies could help to analyze which styles and what forms are most appropriate and helpful for certain purposes.







TAI CHI FOR ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

[Click here for a printable Adobe PDF of this Study Abstract]

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Benefits from Tai Chi

Maria Hernandez-Reif,

Tiffany M. Field and Eric Thimas

Touch Research Institute

University of Miami School of Medicine



Acknowledgements

The authors thank the children and teachers who participated in this study. This research was supported by an NIMH Research Scientist Award (#MHO0331) and an NIMH Research Grant (#MH46586) to Tiffany Field, and a grant from Johnson and Johnson to the Touch Research Institute. Correspondence and requests for reprints

should be sent to Dr. Tiffany Field,

Touch Research Institute,

University of Miami School of Medicine,

P.O. Box 016820, Miami, FL

33101



Abstract

Thirteen adolescents with ADHD participated in Tai Chi classes twice a week for 5 weeks. Teachers rated the adolescents' behaviors on the Conners Scale during the baseline period, after the 5 week Tai Chi period and two weeks later. After the 10 Tai Chi sessions the adolescents displayed less anxiety, daydreaming behaviors, inappropriate emotions and hyperactivity an,d improved conduct. These changes persisted over the two-week follow up (no Tai Chi) period.

.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity D'isorder Benefits from Tai Chi

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits including inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity levels inappropriate for age and gender (DSM-III-R, American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Although short-term improvements have been reported in academic and social functioning ~lit.h drug therapy such as methylphenidate or Ritalin (Schachar & Tannock, 1993; Swanson et aI, 1995), side-effects such as motor tics, insomnia, headaches, and social withdrawal make this treatment controversial (Handen, Feldrnanm Gosling, Breaux et al., 1991; Parraga & Cochran, 1992).

Non-pharmacological treatments include counseling, parent/family training in behavior modification techniques, relaxation and massage therapy. Counseling treatments have received little empirical attention and reports are mostly anecdotal (Schwiebert, Sealander & Tollerud, 1995). Behavior modification techniques have attempted to facilitate the child's performance and attention by including scheduling changes, rearranging home and classroom settings, and training teachers, parents and siblings in differential reinforcement techniques (Blakemore, Shindler & Conte, 1993). Although some studies have shown that behavioral modification is effective (Damico & Armstrong, 1996), one study showed that ADHD adolescents had a weak behavioral inhibition system (Iaboni, Douglas & Blaine, 1997), which made them poor candidates for behavioral programs. Although relaxation therapy has alleviated depression in adolescents

(Platania-Solazzo, et al, 1992), it has had limited effects in treating ADHD (Field, Quintino & Hernandez-Reif, 1997) perhaps because of the demands relaxation therapy places on concentration. Massage therapy, in contrast, has been effective in i~creasing time spent on task, reducing fidgeting, improving mood and lowering hyperactivity scores in adolescents with ADHD (Field, Quintino & Hernandez-Reif, 1997).

Tai Chi has been effective with adults by reducing stress and stress hormones (Jin, 1992), anger and confusion, and improving , mood (Brown, Wang, Ward, Ebbeling, Fortlage, Puleo, Benson & Rippe, 1995; Wolf, Barhhart, Kutner, McNeely, Coogler & Xue, 1996).

In addition, Tai Chi results in lower blood pressure (Channer, Barrow, Barrow, Osborne & Ives, 1996) and improved balance (Wolfson, Whipple, Derby, Judge, King, Amerman, Schmidt & Smyers, 1996). The present study examined the effects of Tai Chi on anxiety, mood, hyperactivity and conduct in adolescents with ADHD.

Method Participants

Thirteen adolescents (11 males), with a mean age of 14.5 years, (R = 13-16) and a DSM-IIIR diagnosis of ADHD were recruited from a remedial school for adolescents with developmental problems. The adolescents carne from middle class f~ilies (~= 2.2 on Hollingshead Two Index Factor) and were ethnically distributed 70% Caucasian, 15% Hispanic and 15% African American.

Procedure

Tai Chi. The adolescents engaged in Tai Chi postures for 30- minute sessions twice a week for 5 weeks. Each mid-afternoon session began with slow raising and lowering of the arms in synchrony with breathing exercises for 5 minutes. The adolescents were then taught to perform slow turning and twisting movements of the arms and legs, shifting body weight from one leg to the other, rotating from side to side and changing directions in a sequence of Tai Chi forms.

An A1B1A2 design was used consisting of a baseline phase

(without Tai Chi) (A1) , as-week Tai Chi phase (B1), and a two week

follow up phase without Tai Chi (A2). At the end of each phase, the teachers, who were not aware of which adolescents were receiving Tai Chi at what time completed the Conners Teacher Rating Scale.

Conners Teacher Rating Scale - Revised (CTRS-R; Goyette,

Conners & Ulrich, 1978). This 28 item teacher rating scale yields a total hyperactivity score in addition to the subcategories of anxiety, asocial behavior, conduct, daydreaming, emotion and

. hyperactivity. Test-retest reliability coefficients of .97 have been reported over a one-week period for this scale (Goyette, Conners & Ulrich, 1978).

Results Repeated measures analyses of variance were performed on the subcategories and total hyperactivity score of the Conners. As can be seen in Table 1, repeated measures effects were obtained for all but the asocial scale.

Insert Table 1 about here


Bonferroni t-tests suggested the following baseline to Tai Chi therapy changes: 1) less anxiety, 2) improved conduct, 3} less daydreaming, 4} less inappropriate emotions, and 5} less hyperactivity during Tai Chi versus before Tai Chi (see Table I). Bonferroni t-tests also revealed that these improved scores

persisted over the two-week follow-up (no Tai Chi) period.

DISCUSSION

The results of this study and our earlier massage therapy study (Field, Quintino & Hernandez-Reif, 1997) suggest that at least two non-drug therapies are effective for adolescents with ADHD. The positive effects of Tai Chi on the adolescents with ADHD parallel the positive effects for adults including reduced mental and emotional stress (Jin, 1992) and improved mood (Jin, 1989).

Although stress hormone levels were not assayed in this study, the adolescents were perceived by their teachers as being less anxious, emotional and hyperactive following Tai Chi. The adult literature has reported reduced stress hormones (cortisol) with Tai Chi (Jin, 1992) .

Tai Chi research on adults has identified changes in cardiovascular, respiratory, electroencephalographic, and biochemical levels (e.g., lower cortisol stress hormone levels) (Brown, Mucci, Hetzler, & Knowlton, 1989; Jin, 1989). Reduced sympathetic activity, or enhanced parasympathetic activity, has been considered a potential underlying mechanism (Hsu, Wang & Kappagoda, 1985). This mechanism might also account for the marked behavioral changes observed in the adolescents in this study and

our earlier ADHD massage study (Field, Quintino & Hernandez-Reif, 1997). The lower stress hormones (cortisol) observed following at least the massage ~herapy in our other studies (Field, et al, in press, Field; Seligman, Scafidi & Schanberg, 1996; Ironson, et al, 1996) is consistent with a mechanism of enhanced parasympathetic activity.

Future studies might compare Tai Chi and massage therapy effects on the reduction of stress hormones (e.g., salivary cortisol or urinary catecholamines) in ADHD adolescents. The comorbidity of ADHD with other psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, and the potential side effects of a multidrug therapy makes Tai Chi and massage therapy attractive alternative treatments. In addition to little or no side effects, especially appealing are the documented effects of Tai Chi and massage therapy on reducing anxiety and hyperactivity, the major and most difficult symptoms in ADHD children.

References

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (3rd Ed., revised). Washington, D.C.

Blakemore, B., Shindler, S., & Conte, R. (1993). A problem solving training program for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 9(1) , 65-85.

Brown, D.D., Mucci, W.G., Hetzler, R.K., & Knowlton, l~.G.

(1989). Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses during formalized .

Tai Chi Chuan exercise. Res Q Exerc Sport, 60,246-250.

Brown, D.R., Wang, Y., Ward, A., Ebbeling, C.B., Fortlage, L., Puleo, E., Benson, H., Rippe, J.M. (1995). Chronic psychological

effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies. ~ Sci Sports Exerc., 27(5), 765-775.

Channer, K.S., Barrow, D., Barrow, R.; Osborne, M., & Ives, G.

(1996). Changes in haemodynamic parameters following Tai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. ~ostgraduate Medical Journal, 72(848). 347-351.

Damico, S.K., & Armstrong, M.B., (1996). Intervention

strategies for students with ADHD: creating a hol,istic approach.

Seminars in Speech & Language, 17(1),21-34.

Field, T., Quintino, 0., & Hernandez-Reif, M., (1997).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Adolescents Benefit from

Massage Therapy. Adolescence, (in press).

Field, T., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C., Fierro, K., Henteleff, T., Mueller, C., Yando, R., Burman, I. Bulimic adolescents benefit from massage therapy, Adolescence (in press).

Field, T., Seligman, S., Scafidi, S., & Schanberg, S., (1996). Alleviating Posttraumatic Stress in Children Following Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 17!- 37-50.

Goyette, C.H., Conners, C.K., & Ulrich, R.F. (1978). Normative data on Revised Conners Parent and Teachers Rating Scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6,221-236.

Handen, B.L., Feldman, H., Gosling, A., Breaus, A.M. et al (1991). Adverse side effects of methylphenidate among mentally retarded children with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30,241-245.

Hsu, L., Wnag, S., Kappagoda, C.T., (1985). Effect of tai Chi Chua on the response to the treadmill exercise. In R.E. Beamishrn, P.K. Singal, N.S., Dhalla (Eds.), Stress and Heart Disease Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.

Iaboni, F., Douglas, V., & Ditto, B. (1997).

Psychophy~iological response of ADHD children to reward and extinction. Psychophysiology, 34 (1), 116-123.

Ironsoh, G., Field, T., Scafidi, F., Hashimoto, M., Kumar, M., Kumar, A., Price, A., Goncalves, A., Burman, I., & Tetenrnan, I.

(1996). Massage therapy is associated with enhancement of the

immune system's cytotoxic capacity, Inter. J. Neuroscience, 84, 205-217.

Jin, P. (1992). Efficacy of Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36, 361-370.

Lufi, D., & Parish-Plass, J. (1995). Per'sonality assessment of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 94-99.

parraga, H.C. & Cochran, M.K. (1992). Emergence of motor and vocal tics during imipramine administration in two children.

Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2,227-234.

Schachar, R., & Tannock, R. (1983). Childhood hyperactivity and psychostimulants: A review of ex.tended treatment studies. Journal of the American Medical Association, 260,2256-2258.

Schwiebert, V, Sealander, K., & Tollerud, T. (1995). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: An overview for school counselors. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 29, 249-259.

Swanson, J.M., McBurnett, K., Christian, D.L., & Wigal, T. (1995). Stimulant medication and treatment of children with ADHD. In T.H., Ollendick & R.Z. Prinz (Eds.) AdVances in clinical child psycbol-oqy, 17,265-322.

Wolf, S.L., Barnhart, H.X., Kutner, N.G., McNeely, E., Coogler, C., Xu T. (1996). Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai chi and computerized balance training.

Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative studies on intervention techniques. (1996). Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44(5), 489-497.

Wolfson, L., Whipple, R., Derby, C., Judge, J., King, M., Amerman, 'P., Schmidt, J., & Smyers, D. (1996). Balance and strengh training in older adults: intervention gains and Tai Chi maintenance. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 44(5), 498-

506.

Table 1. Means (and standard deviatio . arentheses) on Conners Teacher Ratin Scale

for baseline, Tai Chi and two-week foll~w-up period.

Baseline Tai Chi No Tai Chi

Variables First Day Last Day 2-weeks later F= p-value- CONNERS

-Anxiety 56.7(11.3). 43.5( 9.6)1)3 44.5( 6.3)1)3 11.94 .000 -Asocial 52.3(15.2)a 46.5( 9.7)a 48.7(10.9)a 1.42 .262 -Conduct 56.2( 8.0)& 49.0(11.8)b1 50.5(11.9)b1 5.18 .013 -Daydream 61.0( 6.4)& 48.4(11.6)b3 50.5( 7.0)b3 13.75 .000

;.

-Emotion 60.4( 8.9)a 50.2(13.5)b2 52.0(12.3)b2 9.04 .001 -Hyperactive 60.1( 7.9)& 45.8(1~.1)b4 51.7( 8.2)1)4 23.25 .000

- Total 81.5(11.6)a 58.6(17.8)b4 66.2(13.9)b4 19.49 .000

Hyperactivity

means. Superscript indicates level of significant difference between first and last days

-and between first day and 2-weeks later based on Bonferroni t-test (1 p = .05, 2p = .01,

3p = .005, 4p = .001).



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NATIONAL INSTITUTE'S OF HEALTH on TAI CHI & QIGONG AS COMPLIMENTARY & ALTERNATIVE THERAPY -- June 3, 2006
[Source: Clarion-Ledger -
http://www.clarionledger.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060603/FEAT04/606030301/1022


Understanding mind-body medicine

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes for Health

Mind-Body Medicine Overview


Introduction

Mind-body medicine focuses on the interactions among the brain, mind, body and behavior, and the powerful ways in which emotional, mental, social, spiritual and behavioral factors can directly affect health. It regards as fundamental an approach that respects and enhances each person's capacity for self-knowledge and self-care, and it emphasizes techniques that are grounded in this approach.


Definition of scope of field

Mind-body medicine typically focuses on intervention strategies that are thought to promote health, such as relaxation, hypnosis, visual imagery, meditation, yoga, biofeedback, tai chi, qi gong, cognitive-behavioral therapies, group support, autogenic training and spirituality.

The field views illness as an opportunity for personal growth and transformation, and health care providers as catalysts and guides in this process.

Certain mind-body intervention strategies, such as group support for cancer survivors, are well integrated into conventional care and, while still considered mind-body interventions, are not considered to be complementary and alternative medicine.

In 2002, five relaxation techniques and imagery, biofeedback and hypnosis, taken together, were used by more than 30 percent of the adult U.S. population. Prayer was used by more than 50 percent of the population.


Background

The concept that the mind is important in the treatment of illness is integral to the healing approaches of traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, dating back more than 2,000 years. It was also noted by Hippocrates, who recognized the moral and spiritual aspects of healing, and believed that treatment could occur only with consideration of attitude, environmental influences and natural remedies (ca. 400 B.C.).

While this integrated approach was maintained in traditional healing systems in the East, developments in the Western world by the 16th and 17th centuries led to a separation of human spiritual or emotional dimensions from the physical body. This separation began with the redirection of science, during the Renaissance and Enlightenment eras, to the purpose of enhancing humankind's control over nature. Technological advances (e.g., microscopy, the stethoscope, the blood pressure cuff, and refined surgical techniques) demonstrated a cellular world that seemed far apart from the world of belief and emotion. The discovery of bacteria and, later, antibiotics further dispelled the notion of belief influencing health.

Fixing or curing an illness became a matter of science (i.e., technology) and took precedence over, not a place beside, healing of the soul. As medicine separated the mind and the body, scientists of the mind (neurologists) formulated concepts, such as the unconscious, emotional impulses and cognitive delusions, that solidified the perception that diseases of the mind were not real, that is, not based in physiology and biochemistry.

In the 1920s, Walter Cannon's work revealed the direct relationship between stress and neuroendocrine responses in animals. Coining the phrase "fight or flight," Cannon described the primitive reflexes of sympathetic and adrenal activation in response to perceived danger and other environmental pressures (e.g., cold, heat). Hans Selye further defined the deleterious effects of stress and distress on health.

At the same time, technological advances in medicine that could identify specific pathological changes, and new discoveries in pharmaceuticals, were occurring at a very rapid pace. The disease-based model, the search for a specific pathology and the identification of external cures were paramount, even in psychiatry.

During World War II, the importance of belief reentered the web of health care. On the beaches of Anzio, morphine for the wounded soldiers was in short supply, and Henry Beecher, M.D., discovered that much of the pain could be controlled by saline injections.

He coined the term placebo effect, and his subsequent research showed that up to 35 percent of a therapeutic response to any medical treatment could be the result of belief. Investigation into the placebo effect and debate about it are ongoing.

Since the 1960s, mind-body interactions have become an extensively researched field. The evidence for benefits for certain indications from biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral interventions, and hypnosis is quite good, while there is emerging evidence regarding their physiological effects. Less research supports the use of CAM approaches like meditation and yoga. The following is a summary of relevant studies.

For more information

The NCCAM Clearinghouse provides information on CAM and on NCCAM, including publications and searches of federal databases of scientific and medical literature. The clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners.

Toll-free in the United States: 1-888-644-6226.

Source: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/backgrounds/mindbody.htm.