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1. Chan, W.W., & Bartlett, D.J. (2000). Effectiveness of Tai Chi as a therapeutic exercise in improving balance and postural control. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 17(3):1-22, 2000, 17(42 ref), 1-22.

2. Tsang W W, Hui-Chan C W. Comparison of muscle torque, balance, and confidence in older tai chi and healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; (37): 280-289.

3. Anonymous. (2000). Tai chi for strength and endurance: study finds increased muscle gains in elderly subjects. Acupuncture Today, 1(11):1, 4, 2000 Nov, 1(1 ref), 1

4. Thornton E W, Sykes K S, Tang W K. Health benefits of Tai Chi exercise: improved balance and blood pressure in middle-aged women. Health Promot Int 2004; (19): 33-38.

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Harvard Medical School Releases Historic
Tai Chi Medical Research Lecture to Commemorate
World Tai Chi & Qigong Day!

The new Harvard Medical School Guide to Tai Chi is a powerful reference book for all tai chi and qigong advocates, teachers, etc., and the guide cites's expansion of global awareness of tai chi and qigong!

VIDEO - How Tai Chi and Chi Kung Help Heal or Prevent Illness

VIDEO: Qigong Breathing Tutorial

* NOTE: World Tai Chi & Qigong Day advises consulting your physician before beginning any new exercise, herbal, diet, or health program. The research listed here is meant to stimulate a discussion between you and your physician, health insurance carrier, etc., not as medical advise. Research and comments provided here are hoped to stimulate a more robust discussion of powerful natural mind/body health tools.
Check for World Tai Chi & Qigong Day articles on various health conditions and Tai Chi & Qigong (Chi Kung) Therapy, that you may publish on your publication or website, by clicking here.

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Popular media, health media, and government must increase attention to stunning emerging research, including the UCLA study indicating Tai Chi participants enjoyed a 50% increase in immune system resistance to viral infection.

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5. Hass C J, Gregor R J, Waddell D E, Oliver A, Smith D W, Fleming R P, Wolf S L. The influence of Tai Chi training on the center of pressure trajectory during gait initiation in older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; (85): 1593-1598.

6. Tsang W W, Hui-Chan C W. Effects of exercise on joint sense and balance in elderly men: Tai Chi versus golf. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; (36): 658-667.

7. Tsang W W, Hui-Chan C W. Effect of 4- and 8-wk intensive Tai Chi Training on balance control in the elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; (36): 648-657.

8. Tsang W W, Wong V S, Fu S N, Hui-Chan C W. Tai Chi improves standing balance control under reduced or conflicting sensory conditions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; (85): 129-137.

9. Lan C, Chen S Y, Lai J S. Relative exercise intensity of Tai Chi Chuan is similar in different ages and gender. Am J Chin Med 2004; (32): 151-160.

10. Chen, K., & Snyder, M. (1999). A research-based use of Tai Chi/movement therapy as a nursing intervention. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17(3):267-79, 1999 Sep, 17(33 ref), 267-279.

11. Chen, K., Snyder, M., & Krichbaum, K. (2001). Facilitators and barriers to elders' practice of t'ai chi: a mind-body, low-intensity exercise. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 19(3):238-55, 2001 Sep, 19(29 ref), 238-255.

12. Fontana, J.A. (1902). "The energy costs of a modified form of T'ai Chi exercise": Errata. Nursing Research, 49(3), May-Jun

13. Fontana, J.A., Colella, C., Wilson, B.R., & Baas, L. (2000). The energy costs of a modified form of T'ai Chi exercise. [erratum appears in Nurs Res 2000 May-Jun;49(3):145.]. Nursing Research, 49(2), 91-96.

14. Forrest, W.R. (1997). Anticipatory postural adjustment and T'ai Chi Ch'uan. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 33, 65-70.

15. Hong, Y., Li, J.X., & Robinson, P.D. (2000). Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners. Br J Sports Med JID - 0432520, 34(1), 29-34.

16. Hugel, K., & Sciandra, T. (2000). The effects of a 12-week Tai Chi program on thoracolumbar, hip, and knee flexion in adults 50 years and older. Issues on Aging, 23(3):15-8, 2000, 23(22 ref), 15-18.

17. Jacobson, B.H., Chen, H.C., Cashel, C., & Guerrero, L. (1997). The effect of T'ai Chi Chuan training on balance, kinesthetic sense, and strength. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 84(1), 27-33.

18. Judge, J.O., Lindsey, C., Underwood, M., & Winsemius, D. (1993). Balance improvements in older women: effects of exercise training. Physical Therapy, 73(4), 254-262.

19. Lan, C., Lai, J.S., Chen, S.Y., & Wong, M.K. (1998). 12-month Tai Chi training in the elderly: its effect on health fitness. Med Sci Sports Exerc JID - 8005433, 30(3), 345-351.

20. Li, F., McAuley, E., Harmer, P., & Duncan, T. (US). Tai Chi enhances self-efficacy and exercise behavior in older adults. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 9(2), Apr-171

21. Lin, Y.C., Wong, A.M., Chou, S.W., Tang, F.T., & Wong, P.Y. (2000). The effects of Tai Chi Chuan on postural stability in the elderly: preliminary report. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi JID - 9809559, 23(4), 197-204.

22. Parker, M.G., Hocking, K., Katus, J., Stockert, E., & Gruby, R. (2000). The effects of a three-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on isometric muscle strength and balance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study. Issues on Aging, 23(2):9-13, 2000, 23(10 ref), 9-13.

23. Shih, J. (1997). Basic Beijing twenty-four forms of T'ai Chi exercise and average velocity of sway. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 84(1), 287-290.

24. Slater, J., & Hunt, H.T. (1997). Postural-vestibular integration and forms of dreaming: a preliminary report on the effects of brief T'ai Chi Chuan training. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 85(1), 97-98.

25. Sun, W.Y., Dosch, M., & Gilmore, G. (US). Effects of a Tai Chi Chuan program on Hmong American older adults. Educational Gerontology, 22(2), Mar-167

26. Taggart, H.M. (2001). Self-reported benefits of t'ai chi practice by older women. J Holist Nurs JID - 8506709, 19(3), 223-232.

27. Taggart, H.M. (2002). Effects of Tai Chi exercise on balance, functional mobility, and fear of falling among older women. Appl Nurs Res JID - 8901557, 15(4), 235-242.

28. Taggert, H.M. (2000). Tai Chi, balance, functional mobility, fear of falling, and health perception among older women. University of Alabama at Birmingham D, S.N.(168 p), 168

29. Tse, S., & Bailey, D.M. (1992). T'ai chi and postural control in the well elderly. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46(4):295-300, 1992 Apr, 46(42 ref), 295-300.

30. Voukelatos, A., & Metcalfe, A. Central Sydney Tai Chi Trial: methodology. New South Wales Public Health Bulletin, 13(1-2), 19-Feb

31. Wolf, S.L. (2001). From tibialis anterior to Tai Chi: biofeedback and beyond. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback JID - 9712383, 26(2), 155-174.

32. Wolf, S.L., Barnhart, H.X., Ellison, G.L., & Coogler, C.E. (1997). The effect of Tai Chi Quan and computerized balance training on postural stability in older subjects. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies on Intervention Techniques. Physical Therapy, 77(4), 371-381.

33. Wolf, S.L., Coogler, C., & Xu, T. (1997). Exploring the basis for Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil JID - 2985158R, 78(8), 886-892.

34. Wolfson, L., Whipple, R., Derby, C., Judge, J., King, M., Amerman, P., Schmidt, J., & Smyers, D. (1996). Balance and strength training in older adults: intervention gains and Tai Chi maintenance. J Am Geriatr Soc JID - 7503062, 44(5), 498-506.

35. Wolfson, L., Whipple, R., Judge, J., Amerman, P., Derby, C., & King, M. (1993). Training balance and strength in the elderly to improve function. J Am Geriatr Soc JID - 7503062, 41(3), 341-343.

36. Wong, A.M., Lin, Y.C., Chou, S.W., Tang, F.T., & Wong, P.Y. (2001). Coordination exercise and postural stability in elderly people: Effect of Tai Chi Chuan. Arch Phys Med Rehabil JID - 2985158R, 82(5), 608-612.

37. Wu, G., Zhao, F., Zhou, X., & Wei, L. (2002). Improvement of isokinetic knee extensor strength and reduction of postural sway in the elderly from long-term Tai Chi exercise. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 83(10), 1364-1369.

38. Yalom, I.D., Bond, G., Bloch, S., Zimmerman, E., & Friedman, L. (1977). The impact of a weekend group experience on individual therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34(4), 399-415.


1. Chh eng, J. (1902). Exercise adviser. Tai chi chuan: a slow dance for health. Physician & Sportsmedicine, 27(6):109-10, 105-7, 7, 1999 Jun, 27(6), 109-110.

2. Cumming, R.G. (2002). Intervention strategies and risk-factor modification for falls prevention. A review of recent intervention studies. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 18(2), 175-189.

3. Allison, M.T. (1902). Nature of leisure activities among the Chinese-American elderly. Leisure Sciences, 15(4), Oct-Dec

4. Baer, K. (1997). Exercise: a movement toward T'ai Chi. Harvard Health Letter, 22(9):6-7, 1997 Jul, 22(9), 6-7.

5. Bottomley, J.M. (2000). The use of Tai Chi as a movement modality in orthopaedics. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America, 9(3):361-73, 2000 Sep, 9(52 ref), 361-373.

6. Bramnick, J. (1902). Tune in to tai chi: this gentle form of exercise can improve strength and reduce stress for young and old alike. Health & You, 16(3):18-9, 31, 2000 Fall, 16(3), 18-19.

7. Brudnak, M., Dundero, D., & Van Hecke, F. (2002). Are the 'hard' martial arts, such as the Korean e martial art, TaeKwon-Do, of benefit to senior citizens? Med Hypotheses JID - 7505668, 59(4), 485

8. Bunyan, L.E. (2000). Tai chi and the art of downsizing. Natl Netw JID - 9507560, 25(2), 6-7, 27.

9. Hain, T.C., Fuller, L., Weil, L., & Kotsias, J. (1999). Effects of T'ai Chi on balance. Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, 125(11):1191-5, 1999 Nov, 125(27 ref), 1191-1195.

10. Horowitz, S. (1999). Homeopathic and other treatments for vertigo and dizziness. Alternative & Complementary Therapies, 5(2):74-8, 1999 Apr, 5(18 ref), 74-78.

11. Kirsteins, A. (1998). Tai-Chi Chuan... Wolfe SL, Coogler C, Tingse X. Exploring the basis for Tai-Chi-Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;8:886-92. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 79(4):471, 1998 Apr, 79(1 ref), 471

12. Koh, T.C. (1981). Tai Chi Chuan. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 9(1), 15-22.

13. Lan, C., Lai, J., & Chen, S. (2002). Tai chi chuan: an ancient wisdom on exercise and health promotion. Sports Medicine, 32(4):217-24, 2002, 32(43 ref), 217-224.

14. Lan, C., Lai, J.S., & Chen, S.Y. (1902). Tai Chi Chuan: an ancient wisdom on exercise and health promotion. Sports Med JID - 8412297, 32(4), 217-224.

15. e Lan, C., Lai, J.S., Chen, S.Y., & Wong, M.K. (2000). Tai Chi Chuan to improve muscular strength and endurance in elderly individuals: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil JID - 2985158R, 81(5), 604-607.

16. Lehman, R.A. (1998). Contemporary conditioning. T'ai Chi for balance, part 1. Athletic Therapy Today, 3(5):17-8, 1998 Sep, 3(5), 17-18.

17. Levitt, R., & Shuff, P. (1997). Balance and harmony: the essence of T'ai Chi. Nursing Spectrum (Washington, Dc/Baltimore Metro Edition), 7(18):14, 1997 Sep 8, 7(2 bib), 14

18. Luskin, F.M., Newell, K.A., Griffith, M., Holmes, M., Telles, S., DiNucci, E., Marvasti, F.F., Hill, M., Pelletier, K.R., & Haskell, W.L. (2000). A review of mind/body therapies in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders with implications for the elderly. [Review] [91 refs]. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 6(2), 46-56.

19. Meusel, H. (1902). Sport and exercise training suitable for older people. [German]. Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie, 19(6), Nov-Dec

20. Ng, R.K. (1992). Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of tai chi. Hawaii Med J JID - 2984209R, 51(8), 216-217.

21. Schaller, K.J. (1996). Tai Chi Chih: an exercise option for older adults. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 22(10), 12-17.

22. Wu, G. (2002). Evaluation of the effectiveness of Tai Chi for improving balance and preventing falls in the older population--a review. [Review] [54 refs]. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(4), 746-754.

23. Yu, T., & Johnson, J. (2000). T'ai chi fundamentals for health professionals and instructors/T'ai chi fundamentals: simplified exercises for beginners. Physical Therapy, 80(11):1132-3, 2000 Nov, 80(11), 1132-1133.

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